Steps to understanding culture сочинение

Обновлено: 31.03.2023

Every society and culture has different ways of interpreting and defining occurrences by the way their own culture or society functions. A society s culture, consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members (Geertz 242). The rituals, customs, ethics and morals that are attributed to the cultures have caused these differences. To understand how the people of one culture interpret a situation or event, one must evaluate the attributes that a culture has. The criteria that an event is based on changes as one culture applies their own ideas to the given situation. Heroism and violation are two concepts that are easily misinterpreted depending on culture s ideals. Since cultures have different attributes it is impossible for two cultures to exist and share a view of a situation or event.

Heroism and violation are two concepts that are addressed by Geertz in his relating of Ryle s story of the sheep raid. From the different cultures involved, two different interpretations are concluded. To the protagonist, Cohen, and the perpetrators of the crime, his raid on the Berbers was seen as heroism. Cohen risking his life for his redemption of crime that was committed against him is viewed as heroic. On the contrary, when Cohen returned to his French counterparts, they saw his redemption as a violation of the Berbers, and accused him of being a spy:

Here, in our text, such sorting would begin with distinguishing the

three unlike frames of interpretation ingredient in the situation,

Jewish, Berber, and French, and would then move on to show how (and

why) at that time, in that place, their copresence produced a

situation in which systematic misunderstanding reduced traditional

form to social farce. What tripped Cohen up, and with him the whole,

ancient pattern of social and economic relationships within which he

functioned, was a confusion of tongues. (Geertz 241)

Geertz explains that the reason for the confusion, and the different interpretations of the event that took place is a simple misunderstanding that when took place in clashing cultures with different views, both striving to claim the situation in their own contexts became a somewhat humorous event. This conflict between cultures causes a view of a person to change depending on which point of reference they are being seen from.

In Ernest Hemingway s Indian Camp, the conflict between cultures again cause a difference of views of the father. The concept of heroism and violation becomes the issue of conflict. The father or doctor is considered a hero or a violator of the Indian woman depending on the culture viewing him. From the father s culture, he is viewed as a hero for his actions at the Indian camp. His actions are viewed as heroic under the circumstances of his procedure. Because of the culture of the Indian people, having a white man, an outsider of the tribe, come in and operate on an Indian woman is viewed as obscene and a violation of the woman not to have her baby on her own. She had been trying to have her baby for two days. All the old women in the camp had been helping her (Hemingway 16). Because the Indian woman had been trying to have her baby for the last two days with the help of the other Indian women, it shows the Indians reluctance to call for help outside of the camp itself. Uncle George looked at his arm. The young Indian smiled reminiscently (Hemingway 18). During the operation, the young Indian woman bit the arm of uncle George. Her smiling conveys her lack of appreciation for his help during the procedure. The Indian woman feels that, what the uncle George and the doctor perceive as help, is an intrusion of her privacy and her privilege to have her baby with out the assistance of anyone else. These two different groups of people because of the cultures to which each one belongs cannot share this situation. The question of whether the doctor is a hero in the story or whether he has violated the woman and her culture is a problem that arrives, and that has two answers, depending on which culture defines the situation.

Both examples, the sheep raid and the birth of the Indian baby, show how two cultures can have two totally different views of a single situation. In the sheep raid as well as the Indian birth, heroism and violation become the two views held by the cultures involved. The father and Cohen become viewed as hero and as a violator depending on which culture is interpreting the event. As these two cultures attempt to understand what has taken place during the episode, which had occurred, they view the situation in the context of their own way of life. In both stories two cultures view the same situation, but because they view it through the context of their own culture, the event s significance cannot exist simultaneously with the same meaning between the two cultures.

Because of culture s different morals, ethics, and the way the people behave to belong to certain culture, the observation of events when viewed through these unique attributes of the culture become unique to the culture itself. Therefore, when the same event is viewed through the unique characteristics of another culture, the event s significance will embody a completely different meaning, which will be special to that culture and that culture alone. This is why it is impossible for a single event to exist to two different cultures at the same time because to each individual culture the event is not the same.

Geertz, Clifford. Thick Description. A Cultural Studies Reader. Eds. Munna & Rajan.

London: Longman, 1995. 236-256

Hemingway, Ernest. In Our Time. New York, New York: Scribners, 1925. 15-19.

Culture includes music, visual arts, literature, beliefs, different values, morals, laws, traditions and patterns of human behavior. Culture is the characteristics and knowledge in particular group of people. What is culture ?

Every nation has its own traditions and customs which can be unique and not the same with others. For example, Russian celebrate holidays as well as Easter, Maslenitsa and etc. During Maslenitsa people usually cook pancakes and go to their relatives. On Easter people paint eggs and eat cakes. Also Russian hospitality is characteristics of our culture. Traditions and customs

Arts, music, literature , cinema , theatre are important parts of culture. Art is cultural activity of people . It helps us to learn the world around. It includes sculpture, painting, photographing. Music is other kind of art. It gives us opportunities to listen and enjoy music . We do it every day. Literature is the totality written and printed works of particular people . Other important parts of culture

Thank you for your attention!

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 “Steps to understanding culture”

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Slide title “Steps to understanding culture” Literature and Music 1 Values and Beliefs 2 Customs and Traditions 3 Museums and Picture Galleries 4 Theatre and Cinema 5 Patterns of Behaviour 6

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Decide which of the following not parts of culture are “Culture” Music, literature and other arts Countries and continents the way we see the world and ourselves People’s ideas and beliefs Human mind and body Our way of behaviour Our values the language we speak Our customs, traditions and habits Rules and laws by which people live in community the environment in which we live the clothes we wear

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“What is culture?” Answer the questions on the text. What are the main meanings of the word “culture”? Why does the text say that culture helps civilizations to survive? In what way can culture reveal itself? What is an artifact? What things do people of one and the same culture usually share? Would you agree that culture is constantly changing? How can you prove it?

Reflection I liked… I worked …. at the lesson I answered …. I was …. During t.

Reflection I liked… I worked …. at the lesson I answered …. I was …. During the lesson I learned… Now I can… Now I know… I fulfilled … During the lesson I managed to… I can’t… It was easy for me… It was difficult for me… I remembered…

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No doubt, travelling around the world is a great opportunity for people to get acquainted with different cultures. Some people hold the idea that one cannot fully understand culture of other countries without an experience of being in them, while others consider that it is not necessary to travel to another country to know everything about its culture.

In my opinion, people cannot be fully aware of a culture of an another country if they did not visit it. Firstly, seeing everything with our own eyes allows us to get more reliable information about a country, instead of listening to the media, where we often hear incomplete or incorrect information about other countries. Secondly, the most important part of any country is the people living in it, without communication with local people, a person cannot fully understand the country’s culture.

However, some people believe that there is no need to visit another country to comprehend its culture.

According to them, nowadays, people have an access to various sources of information about different countries. A person can find all the information about cultures of different countries just by surfing the Internet.

Nevertheless, I disagree with the opposite opinion. It is better to visit a foreign country and imbued with its atmosphere than read about it. Travel experience will leave a person with many memories and knowledge about the culture of a country.

To sum up, I would like to say that I am completely sure that there is nothing better than explore other countries by yourself to learn about the mentality, values and history of them.

Без сомнения, путешествия по миру — отличная возможность для людей познакомиться с разными культурами. Некоторые люди придерживаются идеи, что невозможно полностью понять культуру других стран без опыта пребывания в них, в то время как другие считают, что нет необходимости ехать в другую страну, чтобы знать все о ее культуре.

На мой взгляд, люди не могут быть полностью осведомлены о культуре другой страны, если они не побывали в ней. Во-первых, видеть все своими глазами позволяет нам получить более достоверную информацию о стране, а не слушать СМИ, где мы часто слышим неполную или неверную информацию о других странах. Во-вторых, самая важная часть любой страны — это люди, живущие в ней, без общения с местным населением человек не может полностью понять культуру страны.

Однако некоторые люди считают, что нет необходимости ехать в другую страну, чтобы познакомиться с ее культурой. По их словам, сегодня люди имеют доступ к разным источникам информации о разных странах. Человек может найти всю информацию о культурах разных стран, просто путешествуя по Интернету.

Тем не менее я не согласен с противоположным мнением. Лучше побывать в чужой стране и проникнуться ее атмосферой, чем читать о ней. Опыт путешествий оставит у человека много воспоминаний и знаний о культуре страны.

Подводя итог, я хотел бы сказать, что я полностью уверен, что нет ничего лучше, чем самостоятельно исследовать другие страны, чтобы узнать о менталитете, ценностях и истории их.

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Mona Lisa
by Brenda M. Weber
Behind kaleidoscopic eyes
there’s no mystery there that lies.
She’s the one to see it all
from her position on a wall.
We look for something in her smile,
We stand to study her awhile,
Her face of beauty that we seek.
What would she say if she could speak?
Is her beauty, oh, so rare?
Was Mona just a maiden fair?
Is she a mirror image of me?
Is that what I’m supposed to see?
Mona’s portrait on the wall —
A combination of us all.
There’s a touch of someone there
in the beauty of her hair.
That hint of prism in her eyes
makes her appear to be so wise.
The playful curvature of her lip
On her cheeks can dance a quip.
She’s a beauty this Mona Lisa
but so is the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
What is the mystery there that lies
Behind kaleidoscopic eyes.
В калейдоскопе твоих глаз
Не может скрыться лживый сказ.
Твой взгляд всех видит нас сейчас,
Ты смотришь со стены на нас.
Стоим мы, глядя на портрет,
В улыбке ищем мы секрет.
Нас манит девы красота.
О, чтоб она сказать могла,
Когда б уста свои открыла?
О, так ли красота её редка?
И кем же, Мона Лиза, ты была?
Служанкою прелестной или синьориной?
А может, она — отраженье мое?
Ловлю черты я сходства на портрете.
Скажите, в чём же таинство её,
Или в ней образ всех людей на свете?
Есть что-то в нежной прелести её волос,
А блик загадки, спрятанный во взгляде,
О мудрости ее нам говорит.
Изгиб игривый губ, румянец на щеках
О, как прекрасна Мона Лиза!
Сравнится с ней лишь башня Пизы.
Но что ж за тайна спрятана от нас
В калейдоскопе её глаз?

No matter
In spite of something

1) difference
2) broadly
3) learned
4) especially
5) intelligent
6) hunting
7) knowledge

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Слайд 1

Steps to understanding culture Presented by Student of 11 class Telitsyna Diana

Слайд 2

Culture includes music, visual arts, literature, beliefs, different values, morals, laws, traditions and patterns of human behavior. Culture is the characteristics and knowledge in particular group of people. What is culture ?

Слайд 3

Every nation has its own traditions and customs which can be unique and not the same with others. For example, Russian celebrate holidays as well as Easter, Maslenitsa and etc. During Maslenitsa people usually cook pancakes and go to their relatives. On Easter people paint eggs and eat cakes. Also Russian hospitality is characteristics of our culture. Traditions and customs

Слайд 4

Somebody think culture is art , literature, music. Anybody say that culture means people’s behavior and their customs and tradition. Everyone sees understanding of the term « culture » differently. But there are universal values such as passing their experience to next generation. Understanding « Culture » for people

Слайд 5

Arts, music, literature , cinema , theatre are important parts of culture. Art is cultural activity of people . It helps us to learn the world around. It includes sculpture, painting, photographing. Music is other kind of art. It gives us opportunities to listen and enjoy music . We do it every day. Literature is the totality written and printed works of particular people . Other important parts of culture

Слайд 6

Thank you for your attention!

Understanding Culture

Understanding culture isn’t easy. If you travel a lot abroad, you are probably are familiar with the feeling of being in an unfamiliar culture. The street signs you can’t read, different foods and drinks than at home, weird customs and traditions are all around you. All of a sudden, you feel like a toddler who can’t read and write, and maybe not even understand what the people around you are saying. To make matters worse, even gestures and mimic can be confusing.

What is culture? Is it more than those stereotypical ideas that Germans drink a lot of beer and are very accurate, and that Americans have drive and yet are easy going, and the French take 3 hour lunches? Understanding cultures is a bit more complicated than those platitudes. According to Gary Wederspahn, culture is the shared set of assumptions, values, and beliefs of a group of people by which they organize their common life. In our world we can distinguish lot of cultures because of the number of countries for example, but also we can see some scales in these ‘country cultures’.

When you travel all over the world, you have to face these different cultures with their own meaning and perception of words or gestures. Understanding culture will help you to be more aware of these differences and so avoid big mistakes in your behavior, what we call ‘cultural adjustment’.

How does culture “express” itself?

Even if the contrary can be thought, we are not spontaneous in our behavior. Our traditions, our values, our education, and so on, influence us in everyday situations. That is why once you know people’s values and beliefs, you can often expect and predict their behavior. We can say that our behavior is a reflection of our culture.

Culture is often compared to an iceberg: the visible section of the iceberg is only a fraction of the invisible part under water. Each culture has some aspects which are observable and others that can only be suspected or imagined. Thus the part of culture which is visible, such as behavior, is only a small part of a bigger picture. If you really want to understand a certain culture better, you need to spend time immersed in it.

To give you a better idea of all the small parts that our culture is made up of, here are listed some examples of cultural expressions: facial expressions, religious beliefs, religious rituals, importance of time, paintings, values, literature, gestures, holiday customs, nature of friendship, notions of modesty, foods and eating habits, understanding of the natural world, concept of self, work ethic, concept of beauty, music, understanding of authority, concept of family, style of dress…

Where does Culture come from?

Understanding Culture - tallHow do people get their culture? How do they learn all the behaviors that are regarded as right and wrong in their society? This process, also known as cultural conditioning, is present in every culture, but the specific behaviors that people have, the precise content of their conditioning, is different from group to group.

Everyone knows that common culture come mainly from a common history which shapes our mind and so have influence on our behavior or way of thinking.

The most important part of your culture will be acquired during your childhood, but you will acquire new behaviors until the end of your life:

  • In Childhood: children learn basics activities as eating, walking, talking, dressing, bathing, etc. These basics are the origin of the future children’s behavior.
  • As Adults: people learn new behavior or new ways to perform thanks to education, travels, etc. Adults learn how to adapt themselves.

How to analyze culture? Or how to have the right behavior?

We can find five steps of culture analyzing:

  1. Observation/Instruction: you become aware of a particular behavior but have not yet tried to do it yourself.
  2. Imitation: now you try to have the same behavior
  3. Reinforcement: people help you by correcting you or showing you.
  4. Internalization: you know how to behave but you still need practice.
  5. Spontaneous Manifestation: you no more need to pay attention to your behavior, it comes naturally.

To go further in behavior/culture analysis, you can research about Hofstede’s parameters and Hall’s parameter.

Why is understanding culture so important?

When you go to another country, you will be confronted with different behaviors, different foods, and different ways of life. Most of people are see that as the main reason why they travel abroad in the first place. They want to open their minds and learn about other cultures, educate about a different way of doing something. 

Understanding culture is important, as it makes you aware and more sensitive to differences, and you could avoid big mistake in your behavior or maybe adjust, but at least to respect the people that belong to other cultures than your own.

Moreover understanding culture does not only exist in the aim of helping poor little students but it is also a real challenge for international businesses. You will not promote a product in the same way in France or in Germany or in Russia.

Understanding culture is the most important thing when dealing and respecting people. It does not mean, you have to go out of your way to mimic a culture that is different than your own, but you should respect the other culture and treat it a different, not inferior yours!

Представлено сочинение на английском языке Культура/ Culture с переводом на русский язык.

Culture Культура
In the modern world people are judged not only by what they do but how they do it. Life in the society is impossible without everyday contacts and meetings, so all relationships depend on the way people behave and treat each other. Human relations and communication skills are important. В современном мире людей судят не только по тому, что они делают, но как они это делают. Жизнь в обществе невозможна без повседневных контактов и встреч, так что отношения зависят от того, как люди ведут себя и относятся друг к другу. Человеческие отношения и коммуникативные навыки важны.
That’s why along with education, people should develop cultural issues. The word “culture” has many meanings. One of the most common explanations refers to the spiritual and material achievements of the humanity. Вот почему наряду с образованием, люди должны развивать в себе и навыки культуры. Слово «культура» имеет много значений. Одно из самых распространенных объяснений относит его к духовным и материальным достижениям человечества.
There are many types of culture. For example, folk culture, popular culture, corporate culture, elite culture, etc. They are all closely connected. Folk or national culture is like a habit of people. It is the everyday life and routine of certain group of people. Elite culture is well-developed and many-sided. It is the attitude towards art, architecture, theatre, music, literature. Popular or mass culture gives people standards to be what they like. It is especially suitable for young people. Corporate culture is collective beliefs and value systems of a certain company. Различают много типов культуры. Например, народная культура, массовая культура, корпоративная культура, элитарная культура и т.д. Они все тесно взаимосвязаны. Народная или национальная культура как привычка людей. Это повседневная жизнь и рутина определенной группы людей. Элитный тип культуры хорошо развит и многогранен. Это отношение к искусству, архитектуре, театру, музыке, литературе. Популярная или массовая культура задает людям стандарты того, что им нравится. В особенности это относится к молодежи. Корпоративная культура – это коллективные убеждения и система ценностей определенной компании.
Thus, all types of culture require certain model of behavior or set of rules for social conduct. However, one thing is common for all people. It’s politeness – the most important sign of any culture. It’s not only saying “Excuse me”, “Sorry”, “Good morning”, “Bless you”. Politeness is something that should be developed in every sphere of life. For example, greeting people you know in the street, wishing your friend a nice day, offering a seat to old people – these are all signs of politeness. Таким образом, все типы культуры требуют определенной модели поведения или ряда правил социального поведения. Тем не менее, одно является общим для всех людей. Это вежливость – самый важный признак любой культуры. Это не только слова «простите», «извините», «доброе утро», «будьте здоровы». Вежливость это то, что должно проявляться во всех сферах жизни. Например, приветствовать знакомых на улице, желать другу хорошего дня, уступать место старшим – все это признаки вежливости.
So, living a civilized life in accordance with culture isn’t as difficult as it might seem. Как видно, жить цивилизованной жизнью в соответствии с культурой не так сложно, как кажется.

Слайд 1
Steps to Understanding Culture

Project Steps to Understanding Culture

Слайд 2
Understanding of the term culture
For some people culture is manners,

courtesy, tact.
For example, say that this man is cultural. This means that he is polite with people.
Understanding of the term cultureFor some people culture is manners, courtesy,

Слайд 3
Understanding of the term culture
The term culture means the traditions

and customs of certain peoples.
Understanding of the term cultureThe term culture means the traditions and customs of certain peoples.

Слайд 4
Understanding of the term culture
Culture is a scientific term. It

means breeding animals, micro-organisms and growing plants.
Understanding of the term cultureCulture is a scientific term. It means

Слайд 5
Understanding of the term culture

Of course, first and foremost, culture

is art and creativity. Music, photography, architecture, painting, literature, theatre, cinema, etc.
Understanding of the term cultureOf course, first and foremost, culture is

Слайд 6
Understanding of the term culture

Understanding of the term culture

Слайд 7

Science and art belong to the whole world, and before

them vanish the barriers of nationality.
© Goethe
Science and art belong to the whole world, and before

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