Water pollution сочинение на английском

Представлено сочинение на английском языке Загрязнение воды/ Water Pollution с переводом на русский язык.

Water Pollution Загрязнение воды
Water covers over 70% of the Earth’s surface. It is very important resource for people and the environment. One of the most urgent problems of today’s life is pollution and especially water pollution. A lot of people can’t drink water from the rivers they live at or use tap water, because most of seas and rivers are used as dumps for industrial and nuclear wastes. These substances are harmful for life beings. Вода покрывает около 70% поверхности Земли. Это очень важный ресурс для людей и окружающей среды. Одна из самых острых проблем современной жизни – загрязнение и особенно загрязнение воды. Многие люди не могут пить воду из рек, около которых они живут, а также пить воду из-под крана, потому что большинство морей и рек используются как свалки для индустриальных и ядерных отходов. Эти вещества вредны для живых организмов.
This results in water poisoning, which kills fish and sea animals. When animals eat other animals that are already poisoned, the chemicals are passed up through the food chain and become even more harmful. Moreover this poisoned fish can be eaten by people and cause various diseases. Water pollution destroys ecosystems. В результате происходит отравление воды, что убивает рыбу и морских животных. Когда животные едят других животных, которые уже заражены, химикаты передаются вверх по пищевой цепи и становятся еще вреднее. Более того, эту зараженную рыбу может съесть человек, что вызовет различные заболевания. Загрязнение воды разрушает экосистемы.
The pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides, food processing waste, lead and other heavy metals and different chemicals. Загрязняющие вещества включают в себя удобрения и пестициды, отходы от пищевого производства, свинец и другие тяжелые металлы, и различные химикаты.
However, we should care about our future and our children’s future. Now more and more ecological organizations appear that try to struggle for pure water. They make protests against big factories that pollute rivers, seas and lakes. What can we do to prevent water pollution? Однако мы должны заботиться о своем будущем и о будущем наших детей. Сегодня появляется все больше организаций, которые борются за чистую воду. Они устраивают протесты против больших фабрик, загрязняющих реки, моря и озера. Что мы можем сделать, чтобы предотвратить загрязнение воды?
First of all, we should never throw rubbish anywhere and try to find a rubbish bin. We should also use water wisely – don’t keep the tap running when you don’t use it. Moreover, we can try to reduce the amount of water when washing or taking a bath. One more good idea is buying ecofriendly cleaning liquids that we use at home – all these measures can help to decrease water pollution. Прежде всего, мы не должны просто бросать мусор, нужно находить мусорные баки. Мы должны благоразумно использовать воду – не держать кран открытым, когда мы его не используем. Более того, мы можем попытаться сократить количество используемой воды, когда стираем или принимаем ванную. Еще одна хорошая идея – покупать экологичные моющие средства, которыми мы пользуемся дома – все эти меры могут помочь предотвратить загрязнение воды.

Water pollution is one of the famous and one of the largest problems in our world. People in Africa cannot drink clean water; their children die because a big part of our water has been polluted. Children in Kenya often have to go many kilometers to collect drinking water. At all over 2 million people don’t have clean water. And we do not know how it will be in future.

But the pollute water killed animals and plants too. There is no ocean or sea, which is not used as a dump. Many seas are used for dumping industrial and nuclear waste. This poisons and kills fish and sea animals. «Nuclear-poisoned» fish can be eaten by people.

Many rivers and lakes are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles cannot live in them. There is not enough oxygen in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and many plants die. If people drink this water they can die too. It happens so because factories produce a lot of waste and pour it into rivers. So they poison water.

But we MUST keep our planet and water of our planet clean. If we want to live, we should guard our clean water and do not pollute them because we could live without food about a month but without water we could die in 4-5 days. Let’s keep our water clean!

Water pollution is a topic of great environmental concern in today’s context. Water is a rare resource, much essential for life on earth. It is not only water that is essential but it also must be clean and safe to use. Polluted and contaminated water is good for nothing and is also hazardous to use or consume. The main causes of water are human-induced and include activities like industrialization, agricultural activities, improper waste disposal, etc.

Short and Long Essay on Water Pollution

We have provided below short and long essays on water pollution in English for your knowledge and information. After going through the essays, you will know what water pollution is and what are its main causes; how to stop water pollution; water pollution prevention etc. These essays will be helpful in your school/college assignments of essay writing, speech giving or paragraph writing, etc.

Water Pollution Essay 1 (100 Words)

Water Pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies and underground resources of water by any of the several human activities or natural causes. Human activities like, urbanization, industrialization, deforestation, waste disposal, landfills are primarily responsible for water pollution.

Some of the natural causes responsible for water pollution are volcanoes and debris from floods. Another natural cause of water pollution is algae bloom. The term “algae” is used to refer to a large and diverse group of photosynthetic organisms. Algae bloom means an increase in the population of algae in a water body, consequently resulting in its discoloration and contamination.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution Essay 2 (150 Words)

The term “Water Pollution” is used when a water body like a river, lake, ocean, etc is polluted due to human activity or a natural cause. Today, water pollution has become a major environmental concern and needs to be responsibly dealt with.

Fresh water is very scarce on the planet and pollution is making it even scarcer. Every year we lose millions of liters of freshwater to industrial and other types of pollution. Pollutants consist of visible small and big pieces of garbage as well as invisible, harmful and toxic chemicals.

The visible impurities can be easily removed from a water body by manual cleaning or filtration, but the chemical pollutants are more hazardous and difficult to remove. Chemicals get mixed into water and change its properties, making it harmful to use and life-threatening.

It is only through sincere individual and collective efforts, that we can overcome the problem of water pollution and prevent a severe water crisis in future.

Water Pollution Essay 3 (200 Words)

Water Pollution is a matter of environmental concern as well as life and health of all living species. For a population of 7.8 billion growing at a rate of 82 million every year we have very little freshwater.

Only 2.5% of all the water available on earth is freshwater that we use for our daily needs. But, human’s desire to expand boundaries and explore commercial avenues have put stress on our freshwater resources, making them polluted as never before.

Many industries are set up near water bodies and use freshwater to carry industrial waste to the nearby water bodies. This industrial waste is toxic in nature and poses a health hazard to the flora and fauna. People in the settlements in the vicinity of polluted water bodies are observed to be suffering from serious skin, respiratory and sometimes even life-threatening other ailments.

Other the main cause of water pollution is urban waste and sewage. Every household produces tons of waste annually, consisting of plastic, wood, chemicals, and other compounds. In the absence of a proper waste disposal mechanism, this waste reaches our water bodies like rivers, lakes, streams and pollutes them. Water pollution must be prevented if we want the earth to be green, healthy and filled with life.

Water Pollution Essay 4 (250 Words)

Water is an essential resource for life on earth. Without water, or to be more specific, without clean and safe water, life on earth would be unimaginable. You may think that we still have plenty of water with it constituting 97.5% of the total volume of earth. But, there is a catch – that 97.5% is salt water that is found mainly in oceans; the water we do not use for our daily needs.

The remaining percentage, that is, only 2.5% is freshwater what we use. Moreover, only 0.3% of that 2.5% is the water found on the surface of the earth. To be more specific, the total volume of water on earth is 1,386,000,000 Km3, out of which only 10,633,450 Km3 is freshwater. Leaving very less freshwater for a population of 7.8 billion as on December 2019 and every year 82 million people are being added to that figure. On the other hand, the volume of freshwater used by the world population took centuries to be produced and thus it can’t be afforded to be polluted at any cost.

If the pollution of water continues as it is today, within a couple of decades we could face an acute water crisis. Then we might be left with no option but only to regret what we have done. There is still time and things can be normalized if we take action today. Whether it is an individual action or a collective one, an action to conserve water and prevent its pollution is the need of the day.

Water Pollution Essay 5 (300 Words)


Water Pollution occurs when external pollutants enter the otherwise clean and safe natural water resources. Due to the growing human intervention and expansion of urban settlements, water pollution has become a painful reality today.

Water Pollution Sources

The sources of water pollution are many and almost all of them are generated due to human activities. Industries emit millions of gallons of toxic smoke and material waste which is left directly into the air, water bodies and natural resources. Most of such waste from the industries are left directly into the water bodies without any kind of treatment. Most of the industrial waste is toxic in nature and in turn, increases the toxicity of the water it reaches.

Also, the domestic waste that is generated every day in the millions of households around the world contains waste plastic materials, chemicals, oils, metals, etc. Most of the households lack a proper waste disposal mechanism and mostly the waste is directly dumped into the environment.

How to Stop Water Pollution

Water pollution could be prevented considerably by making people aware of its causes and its effects on life and the planet. People must take part in cleaning campaigns wherein a group or community takes up the task of cleaning the water bodies every weekend or at least once in a month.

Moreover, strict laws need to be formed and strictly implemented with the objective of eliminating water pollution. Strict monitoring could prevent people and organizations from polluting and will improve accountability as well.


Water pollution today has become a topic of hot debate and concern for environmentalists and scientists. It threatens the future of all the living species on the planet earth. Water is an essential commodity to live added by the fact that only 2% of the water on earth is fresh water that we use. We can’t afford to pollute it further and must take steps for the reversal of the damage that we have already done.

Water Pollution Essay 6 (350 Words)


Water Pollution refers to the introduction of pollutants into our water bodies. These pollutants are primarily generated by human-induced activities and pose a threat to our natural water resources.

Water Pollution Prevention

There are several things one could do to prevent water pollution. Some of them are simple enough to be taken by an individual while some require collective efforts. However, the efforts need to be repeatedly done in order to preserve our natural water resources. Some of the implementable ways to prevent water pollution are given below-

1) Keep your drain free of Contaminants and Chemicals.

An average household generates all kinds of waste including chemicals, disposed medicines, and other hazardous compounds. We must take care while disposing of our household waste and ensure that any such waste didn’t reach the sewage system.

2) Prevent use of Polythene

Polythene bags are widely used today in every household. They are light, could carry heavyweight, and easy to store. But polythene bags constitute a major threat to water resources. The polythene that we dispose of our houses, finds its way into the water bodies. Being non-biodegradable, it just lays there, polluting water and making it toxic.

3) Conserve Water

Always try to conserve water while doing your daily activities, whether it’s cooking, shaving, bathing, gardening or cleaning, etc.  Water conservation can also be achieved by repairing all the faulty taps in your house and locality as well.

4) Reuse and Recycle

Much of the waste that we generate in houses could be reused and recycled if only we make a little effort for it. Wastes like automobile oil are disposed into the drain and easily reach into rivers and streams. This is really hazardous to the purity of water and also to the life of organisms that live in water. On the other hand, automobile oil can be reused for several other lubrication purposes.


Water pollution today has become a cause of great concern for human health as well as the environment. Water is an essential commodity without which life can’t be imagined. It is the duty of all to take steps for keeping water pollution-free and also to conserve it, for a healthy future of the planet.

Water Pollution Essay 7 (400 Words)


Water Pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies like rivers, lakes, ponds and oceans. It is caused when the pollutants generated by human activities like industrialization, urban waste, littering, etc., enter our water bodies and pollute them.

Types of Water Pollution

As water comes from many sources, there are many types of water pollution. The most common types of water pollution are described below.

1) Agricultural/Nutrients Pollution

Some of the waste water and agricultural waste contain high nutrients levels. These nutrient-rich contaminants cause algae growth, making the water unfit for drinking and other purposes. Algae use the oxygen content in water making oxygen scarce for other organisms, resulting in their death.

2) Sewage and Waste Water

Sewage and waste water from urban settlements is rich in various soluble and non-soluble impurities like mercury, plastic, rotten food, debris, chemicals etc. When these pollutants reach water bodies, some of them float over the surface while some sink at the bottom. The soluble impurities change the composition of water as well. This is a dangerous situation for all the living organisms in the water body.

3) Oxygen Depletion

Any water body contains several microorganisms including aerobic and anaerobic organisms. When the biodegradable waste reaches into the water bodies and decays, it encourages the growth of more microorganisms, consequently using more oxygen, in turn, depleting the oxygen level.

4) Pollution of Ground Water

Use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers pollute the groundwater resources. The chemicals get mixed with soil and are soaked into the ground with rain, reaching the underground water reserve. This contaminated water reaches our wells and other sources of water, making its consumption harmful.

Prevention of Water Pollution

Water Pollution can be prevented by taking these simple steps –

  • Don’t pour down fat or oil in your kitchen sink.
  • Avoid improper disposing of harmful chemicals and other contaminants.
  • Never let unused or expired medicines reach the house drainage system.
  • Segregate the waste as solid, liquid, degradable and non-degradable and ensure its proper disposal.
  • Avoid using pesticides and chemical fertilizers as much as you can.


Water pollution is a growing environmental concern which depletes one of our very essential natural resources. It is only through great determination and political will that we can succeed in saving water from getting contaminated.

Water Pollution Essay 8 (500 Words)


Water Pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies, primarily due to human activities. Water bodies include lakes, rivers, ponds, oceans and underground water resources. Water Pollution occurs when waste from industrial and other sources enter into the water bodies, resulting in the contamination of water, moreover, it is also harmful to aquatic life as well as to humans.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water is an essential natural resource and very useful for life on earth. Causes of water pollution are many and always include human activities. The various causes of water pollution are given below-

1) Urban Sewage

The sewage from urban settlements is usually treated with chemicals and then released into the water bodies after mixing with fresh water. Most of the time, the sewage is not treated and is left into the water bodies. It contains harmful, bacteria and pathogens, which is extremely harmful to aquatic life and to humans as well.

2) Industrial Waste

Large amount of toxic waste is produced by the industries. Industrial waste includes pollutants such as mercury, lead, sulfur, asbestos, and nitrates. These chemicals are not only harmful to flora and fauna but also render the water unfit to use. Due to the absence of a proper waste management system, many industries still dump harmful waste in natural water resources.

3) Garbage Dumping

Common household garbage contains plastic, food, wood, paper, rubber, aluminum, etc. This garbage is directly dumped into oceans and rivers or else reaches them indirectly and takes a couple of years to centuries to degrade. In both cases, it pollutes the water bodies and threatens marine life as well as the life of flora and fauna over the adjoining lands.

4) Oil Spills

Oil is non-soluble in water and being lighter in density, floats over it. Though the oil spills have been considerably reduced in the past decades, the incidents of oil spills still happen. For instance, in 2018, there were 137 oil spills in the United States alone. Out of 137 spills, 65 were reported as the maximum potential spills, releasing gallons of oil into the water.

5) Landfills Leakage

Landfills are the huge piles of garbage usually found on the outskirts of a city or urban settlement. The garbage from the landfills leaks into the water bodies with rain or reaches with the wind, resulting in their contamination. They contain a large amount of several contaminants harmful for aquatic life.

Effects of Water Pollution

The most immediate effect of water pollution is on the organisms that live in water. Moreover, it is also harmful to the surrounding plants, animals and humans those use or consume water in some form or the other.

Chemical pollutants are most harmful in this regard as they are difficult to separate physically and alter the properties of water. They get mixed with the water alter its chemical properties, making it harmful to consume or use.

Use of contaminated water causes several serious diseases in humans like – diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, dysentery, etc and could be life-threatening.


Water Pollution today has become a serious issue that concerns the health of the planet and its inhabitants. Water is a very useful resource, much needed for drinking and other essential activities by humans and animals alike. If the already scarce freshwater is made contaminated then the chances of life on the planet are considerably reduced. To save life on earth we must first save the water by keeping our water bodies clean.

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Загрязнение воды в современном мире — очень опасная проблема, поэтому предлагаю поговорить о ней на английском. Water pollution  — топик, который поможет вам при подготовке к экзаменам, обогатив ваш словарный запас.

Water is a liquid chemical substance which is vital for life. We use water for many purposes and we can’t do without it. We drink water, wash everything with it and produce many goods on the base of water.

In addition, other inhabitants of our planet need it not less than we do. Animals and plants drink it as well and some of them also live in water. So water is essential for the whole planet.

However, the water has been polluted disastrously. Seas, oceans, rivers and lakes have become a place into which factories pour poisonous chemicals and waste. After that water becomes polluted and dangerous to live in.

Millions of plants and fish die; animals leave their usual places of living as they have no water to drink. The same problem arises among people. People in Africa often have to walk many kilometers to find some potable water. Water in India has also a poor quality and people suffer from many diseases because of that.

Even if people from developed countries don’t have such problems, they don’t have to take water for granted. If we continue to pollute and to consume more water, its resources will be soon drained and we will die due to our carelessness.

We should care about our planet and try to improve the situation, not to make the things worse.


Вода – жидкий жизненно важный химический элемент. Мы используем воду для многих целей и без нее мы не справимся. Мы пьем воду, моем все водой и производим продукты на основе воды.

Более того, другие жители нашей планеты нуждаются в  ней не меньше нас. Животные и растения тоже пьют ее и некоторые из них живут в воде. Поэтому вода важна для всей планеты.

Однако вода катастрофически загрязнена. Моря, океаны, реки и озера стали местом, куда фабрики сливают отбросы и ядовитые химикаты. После этого вода становится загрязненной и опасной для жизни.

Миллионы растений и рыб погибают, а животные покидают свои привычные места обитания, так как им становится нечего пить. Такая же проблема возникает и среди людей. Людям в Африке часто приходится идти пешком много километров, чтобы раздобыть немного питьевой воды. Вода в Индии также имеет низкое качество и по этой причине люди там страдают от многих болезней.

Несмотря на то, что люди в развитых странах не сталкиваются с подобной проблемой, они не должны воспринимать воду как должное. Если мы продолжим загрязнять и потреблять воду все больше, то вскоре исчерпаем ее ресурсы и погибнем из-за нашей безответственности.

Нам следует заботиться о нашей планете и стараться улучшать ситуацию, а не ухудшать.

Полезные выражения:

Substance – вещество

On the base of – на основе/базе

Inhabitant – житель

To pollute – загрязнять

Potable water – питьеваявода

To take for granted – воспринимать как должное

To drain resources – израсходовать ресурсы

Carelessness – беспечность, безответственность, халатность


  1. Water pollution — актуальный топик
  2. Water Pollution
  3. Сочинение на тему «Загрязнение воды» на английском языке с переводом на русский язык
  4. Water Pollution
  5. Загрязнение воды
  6. Перевод топика: Загрязнение воды
  9. Загрязнение водоемов; Water pollution – Топик по английскому языку
  10. Тема по английскому языку: Загрязнение водоемов
  11. Вода – это жизнь
  12. Виды загрязнителей
  13. Нефтепродукты
  14. Ядовитые химикаты
  15. Промышленные предприятия
  16. Болезнетворные микроорганизмы
  17. Температурный режим
  18. Заключение
  19. Скачать Топик по английскому языку: Загрязнение водоемов
  20. Water pollution
  21. Water is life
  22. Type of pollutants
  23. Petroleum products
  24. Poisonous chemicals
  25. Heavy metals
  26. Pathogens
  27. Thermal pollution
  28. Conclusion

Water pollution — актуальный топик

Рубрика: Природа


Water is a liquid chemical substance which is vital for life. We use water for many purposes and we can’t do without it. We drink water, wash everything with it and produce many goods on the base of water.

In addition, other inhabitants of our planet need it not less than we do. Animals and plants drink it as well and some of them also live in water. So water is essential for the whole planet.

However, the water has been polluted disastrously. Seas, oceans, rivers and lakes have become a place into which factories pour poisonous chemicals and waste. After that water becomes polluted and dangerous to live in.

Millions of plants and fish die; animals leave their usual places of living as they have no water to drink. The same problem arises among people. People in Africa often have to walk many kilometers to find some potable water. Water in India has also a poor quality and people suffer from many diseases because of that.

Even if people from developed countries don’t have such problems, they don’t have to take water for granted. If we continue to pollute and to consume more water, its resources will be soon drained and we will die due to our carelessness.

We should care about our planet and try to improve the situation, not to make the things worse.


Вода – жидкий жизненно важный химический элемент. Мы используем воду для многих целей и без нее мы не справимся. Мы пьем воду, моем все водой и производим продукты на основе воды.

Более того, другие жители нашей планеты нуждаются в ней не меньше нас. Животные и растения тоже пьют ее и некоторые из них живут в воде. Поэтому вода важна для всей планеты.

Однако вода катастрофически загрязнена. Моря, океаны, реки и озера стали местом, куда фабрики сливают отбросы и ядовитые химикаты. После этого вода становится загрязненной и опасной для жизни.

Миллионы растений и рыб погибают, а животные покидают свои привычные места обитания, так как им становится нечего пить. Такая же проблема возникает и среди людей. Людям в Африке часто приходится идти пешком много километров, чтобы раздобыть немного питьевой воды. Вода в Индии также имеет низкое качество и по этой причине люди там страдают от многих болезней.

Несмотря на то, что люди в развитых странах не сталкиваются с подобной проблемой, они не должны воспринимать воду как должное. Если мы продолжим загрязнять и потреблять воду все больше, то вскоре исчерпаем ее ресурсы и погибнем из-за нашей безответственности.

Нам следует заботиться о нашей планете и стараться улучшать ситуацию, а не ухудшать.

Полезные выражения:

On the base of – на основе/базе

To pollute – загрязнять

Potable water – питьеваявода

To take for granted – воспринимать как должное

To drain resources – израсходовать ресурсы

Carelessness – беспечность, безответственность, халатность


Water Pollution

Сочинение на тему «Загрязнение воды» на английском языке с переводом на русский язык

Water Pollution

Загрязнение воды

Nowadays the high development of the industry leads to the inevitable pollution of the environment all over the world. First of all, it has a negative effect on the hydrosphere because, anyway, waste water falls into a reservoir or go into the ground water through the soil.

В настоящее время высокие темпы развития промышленности приводят к неизбежному загрязнению окружающей среды во всем мире. Прежде всего, это негативно сказывается на гидросфере, потому что сточные воды, так или иначе, попадают в водоем или в грунтовые воды.

The problem of water pollution is a global one. So it considerably complicates the ways of its solution, because different countries have to cooperate in solving such problems. However there are some problems connected with such cooperation. For example, the Mediterranean Sea is the most polluted sea in the world, perhaps, because there are 22 different countries with coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea. There is a similar problem connected with the Atlantic Ocean. There is a huge number of countries using it for the transportation of goods. So it somehow pollutes the ocean. It should be mentioned that the oil industry have a negative effect on the hydrosphere.

Проблема загрязнения воды является глобальной. Это значительно усложняет пути ее решения, поскольку разные страны должны сотрудничать в решении таких вопросов. Однако есть некоторые трудности, связанные с таким сотрудничеством. Например, Средиземное море является самым загрязненным морем в мире, возможно, потому, что Средиземное море омывает берега 22 стран. Существует подобная проблема, связанная с Атлантическим океаном. Существует огромное количество стран, которые используют океан для перевозки грузов, что, так или иначе, его загрязняет. Следует отметить, что нефтяная промышленность также негативно влияет на гидросферу.

The common problem is the pollution of fresh water. People must understand that polluted drinking water is not only dangerous for people’s health and the environment, but also causes economic problems, because purification of it requires a lot of money.

Общей проблемой является загрязнение пресной воды. Люди должны понимать, что загрязненная питьевая вода не только опасна для здоровья и окружающей среды, но и создает экономические проблемы, так как ее очистка очень дорогостоящая.

Besides, it is necessary to say a few words about Lake Baikal. It is the largest natural reservoir of fresh water. We must do everything to keep the purity of this lake.

Кроме того, необходимо сказать несколько слов о Байкале. Это самый большой естественный резервуар пресной воды. Мы должн ы сделать все, чтобы сохранить чистоту этого озера.



Water pollution occurs mostly, when people overload the water environment such as streams, lakes, underground water, bays or seas with wastes or substances harmful to living beings.

Water is necessary for life. All organisms contain it, some drink it and some live in it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive, if water contains toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. Water pollution kills large quantity of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing everything in an affected area.

Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to swim in or to have a rest. Fish and shellfish harvested from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat. People who polluted water can become ill, if they drink polluted water for a long time, it may develop cancer or hurt their future children.

The major water pollutants are chemical, biological, and physical materials that lessen the water quality. Pollutants can be separated into several different classes:

The first class is petroleum products: oil, fuel, lubrication, plastics. The petroleum products get into water by accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks and when there are leaks from underground storage tanks. Many petroleum products are poisonous for animals. Spilled oil damages the feathers of birds and the fur of animals, often it causes death.

The second class is pesticides and herbicides. There are chemicals used to kill harmful animals and plants. If they penetrate into streams, rivers, lakes, these chemicals can be very dangerous. The chemicals can remain dangerous for a long time. When an animal eats a plant that’s been treated with it, the poisons are absorbed into the tissues and organs of the animals.

When other animals feed on a contaminated animal, the chemicals are passed up to them. As it goes up through the food chain, the chemical becomes more harmful, so animals at the top of the food chains may suffer cancers, reproductive problems, and death. Nitrates can cause a lethal form of anemia in infants.

The third class are heavy metals, such as, mercury, selenium, uranium, radium, cesium, etc. They get into the water from industries, automobile exhausts, mines, and natural soil. Heavy metals also become more harmful as they follow the food chain. They accumulate in living being’s cells and when they reach high levels of concentration in the organism, they can be extremely poisonous, or can result in long-term health problems. They can sometimes cause liver and kidney damage.

The fourth class is fertilizers and other nutrients used to promote plant growth on farms and in gardens.

The fifth class is infectious organisms and pathogens. They enter water through sewage, storm drains, runoff from farms, etc.

The last one is thermal pollution. Water is often taken from rivers, lakes or seas to be used in factories and power plants. The water is usually returned to the source warmer than when it was taken. Even a small temperature change in a body of water can drive away the fish and other species that were originally there, and attract other species in place of them. It breaks a balance and can cause serious circumstances in future.

Перевод топика: Загрязнение воды

Загрязнение воды происходит главным образом, когда люди перегружают водную окружающую среду, ручьи, озера, подземные воды, заливы и моря, отходами или веществами, вредными для живых существ.

Вода, необходима для жизни. Все организмы содержат воду, некоторые пьют ее, некоторые живут в ней. Растениям и животным нужна относительно чистая вода, и они не выживут, если в воде будут токсические химикалии или вредные микроорганизмы. Загрязнение воды убивает большое количество рыбы, птиц и других животных, а в некоторых случаях в пострадавших районах убивает все живое.

Загрязнение превращает ручьи, озера и прибрежные воды в места, непригодные для отдыха и купания. Рыба и моллюски, пойманные в загрязненной воде, могут быть небезопасны для еды. Люди, которые пьют загрязненную воду, могут заболеть, если они пьют загрязненную воду в течение долгого времени, это может вызвать рак или повредить их будущим детям.

Больше всего воду загрязняют химические, биологические вещества, которые ухудшают качество воды. Загрязняющие вещества могут быть разделены на несколько различных классов.

Первый класс — это нефтепродукты: нефть, топливо, смазочные вещества, пластмассы. Нефтепродукты попадают в воду через случайные утечки с судов, грузовых танкеров, когда есть утечки из подземных хранилищ и резервуаров. Многие нефтепродукты ядовиты для животных. Пролитая нефть повреждает перья птиц и мех животных, часто это приводит к смерти.

Когда другие животные съедают пораженное животное, химикалии попадают к ним. Проникая вверх по пищевой цепочке, химикаты становятся все более и более вредоносными, так что животные на верхних ступенях пищевой цепочки могут страдать раковыми образованиями, проблемами воспроизводства, могут погибнуть. Нитраты могут стать причиной смертельного исхода от анемии у младенцев.

Третий класс — это тяжелые металлы, такие как ртуть, селен, уран, радий, цезий и т. д. Они попадают в воду с промышленных предприятий, выхлопных труб автомобилей, шахт и обычного грунта. Тяжелые металлы также становятся более вредными, поскольку они следуют по пищевой цепи. Они накапливаются в клетках живых организмов. Когда они достигают высокого уровня концентрации в организме, они могут быть чрезвычайно ядовитыми или могут стать причиной серьезных проблем со здоровьем. Они могут иногда вызывать повреждения печени и почек.

Четвертый класс — это удобрения и другие вещества, которые используются для улучшения роста растений на фермах и в садах.

Пятый класс — инфекционные организмы и патогенные микроорганизмы. Они попадают в воду через сточные воды, дренажи, каналы отвода сточных вод с ферм и т. д.

И последний класс — тепловое загрязнение. Вода, которая забирается из рек, озер, морей для нужд предприятий, часто возвращается к источнику теплее, чем она забиралась. Даже малое температурное изменение воды может отпугнуть рыбу и другие виды животных, которые изначально жили там, и привлечь другие разновидности вместо них. Это нарушает баланс и может вызвать серьезные последствия в будущем.



Water is very important for life on the Earth. It is in oceans, seas, rivers and lakes. Water is a necessary part for existence of all living things. Human body contains from 50% to 70 % of water. Every day the average household uses about 500 liters of water for drinking, cooking, hygiene needs, laundry, etc. Water is essential for our health so the quality of water is one of the most important problems in the civilized world.

There is much water on our planet and at the same time there is little water on it. It is so because very little water on the Earth is good for drinking. The supply of clean water is getting less every day because of its useless consumption and pollution.

For example, lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake on the Earth. The lake is very beautiful but now it is in great danger, because of the factories which are near it. At some places the water in the lake is so dirty that it can kill animals and plants in Baikal and near it.

The main source of water pollution is the man. Plants and factories often dump their waste directly into rivers and lakes. This waste is often toxic. Though the pollutants can be carried away they never disappear and the quality of water dramatically falls.

Air pollution has a negative impact on water quality too. Air pollutants can be deposited on land and water, sometimes at great distances from their original sources.

The pollution of the world’s ocean is the result of human’s careless interaction with nature, a sign of ecological crises. If people want to survive they must do their best to solve the problems of environmental pollution.

Смотрите также по теме:


Вода очень важна для жизни на Земле. Вода находится в океанах, морях, реках и озерах. Вода является необходимой частью для существования всех живых существ. Тело человека содержит от 50 % до 70 % воды. Каждый день среднестатистическая семья потребляет около 500 литров воды для питья, приготовления пищи, гигиенических потребностей, стирки и т.п. Вода необходима для нашего здоровья, поэтому качество воды является одной из самых важных проблем в цивилизованном мире.

На нашей планете много воды, и в то же время – её мало. Это так, потому что на Земле очень мало воды, пригодной для питья. Запасы чистой воды ежедневно уменьшаются в связи с её бесполезным расходом и загрязнением.

К примеру, озеро Байкал является самым глубоким пресноводным озером на Земле. Это озеро очень красивое, но сейчас оно находится в огромной опасности из-за фабрик, которые расположены рядом с ним. В некоторых местах вода в озере настолько грязная, что она может погубить животных и растения как в самом Байкале, так и в местах, прилежащих к нему.

Основным источником загрязнения воды является человек. Заводы и фабрики часто сбрасывают свои отходы напрямую в реки и озера. Эти отходы часто являются токсичными. Хотя загрязнители могут относиться течением, они никогда не исчезают, и качество воды значительно ухудшается.

Загрязнение воздуха также оказывает негативное влияние на качество воды. Загрязнители воздуха могут накапливаться в земле и воде, иногда на огромных расстояниях от своих первоначальных источников.

Загрязнение мирового океана является результатом небрежного обращения с природой, признаком экологического кризиса. Если люди хотят выжить, они должны сделать всё возможное, чтобы решить проблемы загрязнения окружающей среды.


Загрязнение водоемов; Water pollution – Топик по английскому языку

Тема по английскому языку: Загрязнение водоемов

Топик по английскому языку: Загрязнение водоемов (Water pollution). Данный текст может быть использован в качестве презентации, проекта, рассказа, эссе, сочинения или сообщения на тему.

Вода – это жизнь

Вода повсюду. Она является неотъемлемой частью всех живых существ, но нет в целом мире моря или океана, которые бы не использовались как помойная яма. Загрязнение водоемов не только уничтожает крупные популяции птиц, рыб и животных, но также в ряде направлений негативно влияет и на человека. Через несколько лет на Земле не останется пляжа или зоны отдыха, а также воды, которую было бы безопасно пить.

Виды загрязнителей


Существует несколько видов загрязнения водоемов. Самый опасный – нефтепродукты, такие как нефть, топливо и пластик, которые попадают в воду с кораблей и танкеров в результате протечки. Они чрезвычайно опасны для морского мира и зачастую приводят к гибели огромного количества морских обитателей.

Ядовитые химикаты

Следующий вид загрязняющих веществ – ядовитые химикаты. Попадая в реки и озера, они отравляют рыбу и животных, которые представляют серьезную угрозу для здоровья человека, когда их употребляют в пищу.

Промышленные предприятия

Промышленные и горнодобывающие предприятия и выхлопные газы автомобилей выбрасывают в атмосферу и водоемы такие тяжелые металлы как уран, радий, селен и т.д. Когда их концентрация в организме человека достигает высокого уровня, они способны вызывать хронические заболевания.

Болезнетворные микроорганизмы

Еще одной угрозой являются болезнетворные микроорганизмы, попадающие в воду с бытовыми и сельскохозяйственными сточными водами, а также ливневой канализацией.

Температурный режим

И наконец, большое беспокойство вызывает нарушение температурного режима. Зачастую вода, используемая на заводах и электростанциях, сливается обратно в озера и моря, будучи гораздо теплее, что некомфортно для многих видов рыб, поэтому они уплывают из этих мест. В результате, нарушается природный баланс.


Если люди хотят спасти водные ресурсы планеты, они должны принять срочные меры по их защите.

Скачать Топик по английскому языку: Загрязнение водоемов

Water pollution

Water is life

Water is everywhere. It’s an integral part of all living beings but there is no ocean or sea in the whole world which wouldn’t be used as a dump. Water pollution not only damages large populations of birds, fish and animals but also affects people in different ways. In several years there will be no beaches and recreational zones to have a rest and no safe water to drink.

Type of pollutants

Petroleum products

There are different types of water pollution. One of the worst ones is petroleum products such as oil, fuel and plastic which are accidentally spilled from ships and tankers as a result of the leak. They are very dangerous for our sea world and often cause massive death.

Poisonous chemicals

Another type of pollutants is poisonous chemicals. When they get into rivers and lakes they may infect fish and animals and when harvested they become a serious threat to people’s health.

Heavy metals

Pollutants represented by heavy metals such as uranium, radium, selenium and some others result from industry, car fumes and mines. When their concentration in the organism reaches quite a high level they may cause long-term health problems.


One more class of harmful pollutants is pathogens which penetrate into water by means of sewage, storm drains and runoff from farms.

Thermal pollution

Finally, thermal pollution is a great concern. Very often water used in factories and power plants is poured back into lakes and seas being much warmer which is not optimal for many species of fish, so they go away from those places. As a result, the whole balance is broken.


If people want to save our planet’s water resources, urgent measures must be taken to protect it.


The biological or chemical change in the quality of water due to the presence of contaminants in water is called water pollution. Most of this contamination as on date is due to various human activities. In fact, humans are responsible for the mass deaths of whales and other aquatic organisms often swept ashore at different beaches in the world. There is an urgent need to look into the measures to control water pollution although a lot many efforts and schemes have already been announced by the Government in this regard. To make the students aware of this we have prepared short and long essays for students which shall inform them about water pollution and the means to minimise it.


    • List of Essays on Water Pollution in English
      • Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 1 (150 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 2 (250 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 3 (300 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution: Causes and Impact – Essay 4 (500 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution: Causes and Effects – Essay 5 (500 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 6 (750 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution with Conclusion – Essay 7 (1000 Words)
      • Essay on Water Pollution: Sources and Effects – Essay 8 (1500 Words)

List of Essays on Water Pollution in English

Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 1 (150 Words)

Water pollution is a serious environmental issue. Water is said to be polluted if its physical, biological, and chemical properties are deteriorated via anthropogenic and natural activities. Water pollution has affected the lives of humans and animals in all aspects. Water pollution is very hazardous to the environment.

The water we drink daily looks clean; however, it is contaminated with microscopic pollutants. Many families have installed water purifiers at home to ensure that their family members get to drink healthy water. However, this will not help curb the water pollution problem on the global level. We should pledge not to pollute the water and preserve the natural reservoirs in order to curb water pollution. A number of campaigns such as ‘clean Ganga’ are run by the government and NGOs that have helped enlighten the population about the issue. More steps are required to be taken to ensure an adequate level of clean and pollution-free water for the survival of life on the planet.

Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 2 (250 Words)


The consumption of water forms a large part of our physical health. Aside from this obvious fact, water is an important aspect of our ecosystem. However, for water to perform its various functions, it has to be kept pure as contaminated water would lead to adverse environmental and health consequences.

Water pollution is the introduction of foreign material into our water bodies like lakes, streams, rivers or groundwater. This introduction, 9 times out of 10 is usually a result of human interference. Through various activities, sometimes inadvertently, we pollute our ecosystem with toxic materials dumped into our water.

Causes of Water Pollution:

One of the most popular features of water is also the cause of water pollution. Water is a “Universal Solvent” which simply means that it can dissolve almost any substance. Consequently, it is also why toxic substance mixes with water effortlessly. These toxic materials could be from traceable sources such as factories, farms, sewage etc. They are sometimes less traceable sources such as pollution in the air.

Water Pollution Effect on our Environment:

The first organisms that come in contact with polluted water are creatures living in the water. The effect of water pollution on aquatic animals depends on the kind of material introduced into the water. In extreme cases, it can lead to death of aqua species. It can also lead to a serious disrupting of the food chain. Finally, water pollution can lead to serious diseases in humans such as cholera and hepatitis.

Preventive Measures:

While the obvious way to reduce or eliminate water pollution is to stop industrial waste, doing just that and nothing more would not be enough. Preventive measures such as reduction in plastic consumption, controlling leaks in cars, using fewer pesticides or efficient disposal of chemicals would help us go the extra mile.

Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 3 (300 Words)

Clean environment is the basic life supporting system and pure water plays a prominent role in balancing the ecosystem. The environment provides us with the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat and a shelter to protect ourselves. Access to fresh and clean water is a basic necessity of any living being for existence. But now it is least available. The adage, “Water, water everywhere, not a drop to drink,” rightly fits the current scenario.

No human activity can be possible without pure water. We face an acute shortage of clean drinking water and millions of people have been suffering from the shortage of pure drinking water. Despite knowing all these facts, people continue to contaminate water bodies recklessly exploiting the natural source of drinking water and risking the lives of millions of aquatic species.

Address the issues:

Water pollution poses a significant threat to the ecology and sustenance of life. The first and foremost cause of water pollution is the dumping of industrial wastes directly into the water bodies, and catchment areas without proper treatment. Aquatic species consume these harmful chemicals and become a huge menace to the ecosystem. It also leads to the reduction of oxygen content in the rivers and lakes.

Also, ruthless usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture, are a reason to pollute water bodies. Uncontrolled discharge of wastes and improper sanitation also contribute to water pollution. When humans and animals intake water from these polluted rivers and lakes, it affects the health adversely. You can easily identify impure water from its color.

Moreover, such polluted water bodies become the breeding center of microbes and a reason to spread waterborne diseases and epidemics such as typhoid, diarrhea, cholera, etc. The underground water resources also get polluted when the contaminated water seeps through the soil.


The most critical step to prevent water pollution is to adopt appropriate waste management policies. Setting up of wastewater treatment plants can resolve this issue and hence we can protect our natural water resources from contamination and embrace an eco-friendly life.

Essay on Water Pollution: Causes and Impact – Essay 4 (500 Words)


Water pollution is the contamination of water by pollutants. World has faced an environmental challenge as a result of water pollution. In the whole of India, most of the water sources are polluted, about 80 percent of the total water surface. The country has made headlines in global environmental pollution statistics, which includes rain water that is being harnessed. The highest sources of pollutants are the manufacturing and processing industries that release sewerage directly into water bodies without treating it and domestic sewerage. Water pollution is so adverse that there is insecurity of water yet the population is continuously increasing. As a third world country, the pollution rate is high and since it is still growing, there are limited resources that can be used to curb the damage and the situation remains the same over the years.

Causes of water pollution:

Water pollution results from a various human activities and developmental factors. One of the human activities that pollute water bodies is the release of untreated wastes into water, which affects both surface and ground water. In the rural parts, liquid waste disposal has not been developed and in urban areas, only 56.4 percent of sewage systems have been developed. The lack of sewage systems result in about 80 percent of the wastes directed to water bodies. Another human activities that contribute to water pollution are agricultural chemicals that end up flowing to water sources. Developmental factors causing water pollution in India are mostly the unregulated industries. The large scale industries are usually regulated by the government in terms of waste management but some small industries have do not have regulations and they tend to discharge industrial effluents that are untreated into water bodies.

The impacts of water pollution in India:

Water pollution affects the quality of life in more ways than one. The living component of the environment is adversely affected especially aquatic animals. The untreated sewage contains harmful chemicals that cause death in aquatic animals. The chemicals in water disrupt the nature of soil by altering the pH and reducing the fertility thus adversely affecting agricultural activities. When humans consume water that is polluted, they suffer from illnesses. Waterborne diseases like cholera are life threatening. Water pollution has also resulted in scarcity of safe water for consumption by people and the government is currently battling water insecurity.


In conclusion, water pollution has effects on the general economy and prevention methods should be initiated. Prevention strategies should involve strict policies that govern the discharge of untreated wastes into water bodies and the development of adequate sewage systems. The government should also look into the issue of water security and ensure that there is adequate water for all citizens through effective planning and management.

Essay on Water Pollution: Causes and Effects – Essay 5 (500 Words)

India is a country enriched by majestic Ocean bodies, gigantic rivers, mammoth waterfalls and beautiful lakes. Unfortunately, these beautiful water bodies are getting polluted due to heavy industrialization and urbanization in India. Water pollution in the country is resulting a havoc in the lives of common people.

Causes & Effects of Water Pollution:

Fresh water scarcity is a growing problem faced by Indian cities. Due to less rainfall places like Marathwada region in Maharashtra face severe drought conditions. At the time of such calamitous conditions India must focus on saving the natural sources of water and especially fresh water from getting polluted. Let us discuss some the primary causes and effects of water pollution.

1. Sewage Water:

A huge amount of garbage from households, agricultural lands and other commercial places is dumped into lakes and rivers. These wastes contain harmful chemicals and toxins which creates poisonous water and damages the aquatic flora and fauna.

2. Polluted river banks:

In the villages people go for defecation near the river bank. They wash clothes and cattle and pollute the rivers and lakes. Every year massive piles of litter and solid waste are accumulated at the banks of the rivers and lakes during various festivals and celebrations.

3. Industrial Waste:

The Industries hugely contribute to the pollution of water bodies. The industries at Mathura have caused nearly irreversible damage to the condition of river Yamuna. A huge amount of industrial waste is also dumped in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal which has impaired the marine life.

4. Oil Pollution:

Oil spilled from ships and tankers is hugely responsible for polluting the sea water. As the oil floats on the water surface, it prevents the flow of oxygen into the water and thus sabotages the life expectancy of marine animals and plants.

5. Eutrophication:

Eutrophication is a process where an increased level of nutrients in water bodies results in growth of algae in water. It depletes the oxygen in water. This destructively affects water quality, fish and other aquatic inhabitants.

Preventive Actions Taken:

The Indian Government has undertaken strict regulatory action against industries who are responsible for polluting water bodies. It has implemented National Water Quality Maintenance Program (NWQMP) which keeps check on the water pollution level in the water bodies. Programs like ‘Namami Gange’ and ‘Yamuna Action Plan’ are implemented on a large scale. The Government is providing funds to build toilets in every household of the villages and remote areas in the country. Movies, advertisements, and skits are predominantly playing a big role in educating the people about the hazards of water pollution and ways to prevent it. Water treatment plants and Septic tanks are built to treat the sewage water.


Water pollution is also posing a real time threat to the health condition of the Indian people who consume contaminated water. To curb water pollution all the laws and regulations implemented by the government will be a futile practice without active participation of the local people. It is the responsibility of every citizen to contribute in conserving water bodies and keep them pollution free.

Essay on Water Pollution – Essay 6 (750 Words)


Water is the most important resource on earth on which all the living and non-living beings depend on. On a serious note, a countless litre of water is needed for running a day’s chore, across the globe from drinking, farming activities, industrial activities, household chores, and not to forget, the entertainment and leisure activities like water game theme park, swimming pool etc. Regardless of our dependence on this precocious commodity, we have a tendency to use it very carelessly, causing pollution and water scarcity.

Almost over two-thirds of Earth’s surface is filled by water. But, as the population explodes, the human race is giving an ever-increasing pressure to the planet’s water resources. To put it in an understandable way, the inland and underground water are being squeezed from Mother Earth due to the irresponsible activities of humans which depleted the quality of good water drastically. Poorer water quality can otherwise be said as, “Polluted Water”.

Causes of Water Pollution:

Although we have various definitions for water pollution, the essence of it is that the amount of pollutant present in water over a period of time, making water unfit for use. Upon the introduction of harmful materials, water loses its natural qualities and is transformed to contaminate one, which we call it as polluted water. Additionally, the offensive smell, unbearable taste or sight makes water a polluted commodity.

One of the most common reasons for water pollution is the direct disposal of human and industrial waste into the water bodies. Another reason that needs to be mentioned on a highly worried note is the oil spill occurring in the oceans. Ever since the industrial revolution occurred, we have got factories that discharge high amounts of toxic chemicals, metallic compounds, sulphites and many other toxins that poison the water bodies. Even in the process of waste disposal by dumping, the industrial waste has toxins that can penetrate and contaminate the underground water table, thus contaminating the whole resource of water.

Other notable causes of water pollution include improper sewage or the seepage of sewage into the underground water table, misuse of the wastewater, marine dumping and the radioactive waste, atmospheric deposition, eutrophication, etc.

Effects of Water Pollution:

The first and foremost effect of water pollution is water scarcity. The polluted water is highly unfit for the use of humans and will need processing. Some toxins in the water can enhance the growth of aquatic weeds while killing the major aquatic life. This causes an ecological niche and imbalance in the ecosystem. When the aquatic weeds grow in excess, they can clog the water canals, quickly dissolve oxygen, and can also block the light rays into deep water. As a result, this process kills almost all the aquatic animals. The introduction of toxins in the food chain of the aquatic ecosystem can also affect the humans who consume the fish and other animals.

Some of us believe pollution is an inevitable result of human activity: we also tend to argue that if we opt for urbanization with ultra-modern resorts and cities, some extent of pollution is sort of sure to result. In alternate words, pollution could be a necessary evil that we all should place up with if we need to form progress. As luck would have it, not everybody agrees with this point of view. One reason individuals have woken up to the matter of pollution is that it brings prices of its own that undermine any economic edges that crop up by polluting. Water Pollution is now an important trouble that needs an immediate solution as it affects the ecosystem that we depend on. This can never be distanced as we are a part of the environment.

We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a comparatively a recent happening in the Earth’s history. As such, before the 19th century Industrial Revolution, humans used to live in harmony with their immediate habitat. As industrialization expanded around the world, so the use of pollution has also expanded with it. When the population on Earth was much smaller, no one though pollution would ever become such a serious issue. It was once widely believed that the water bodies, such as oceans were too huge to get polluted. But now, with almost seven billion people on Earth, it is now very evident that we have limits and water pollution is one big sign that we have crossed those already.


To conclude, water pollution is majorly the result of those oil spills and industrial, as well as human waste disposal. This gravely affects our environment and eventually, the life of humans and animals. The deterioration of drinking water requires a prevention method on an urgent basis, which is possible only by the proper understanding, as well as support from each and every one of us.

Essay on Water Pollution with Conclusion – Essay 7 (1000 Words)


Water pollution can be said to mean the contamination of bodies of water largely due to human activities. Examples of water bodies include rivers, lakes, groundwater, aquifers and oceans. Water pollution occurs when contaminants are added to the water bodies. In other words, water is said to be polluted when it is adulterated due to anthropogenic contaminants. Water that is polluted due to contaminants is not fit for human use like drinking.

Water pollution is a worldwide problem that requires serious evaluation of various policies in water resources. Water pollution can be classified into marine pollution, surface water pollution and also nutrient pollution. Water pollution sources can either be non-point sources or point sources. Point source as the name indicates has just one cause of pollution that is identifiable such as wastewater treatment facility, storm drain, or stream. Non- point pollution sources are quite diffuse and an example is the runoff from agriculture. Pollution is a result of a cumulative effect with respect to time.

Types of water pollution:

Surface water pollution has pollution of lakes, rivers and oceans as examples and is basically of water bodies that are open. Marine pollution is a sub-category of surface water pollution. It is the introduction of contaminants or their entry into large water bodies. Rivers are means by which seas are polluted due to rivers emptying into seas. A typical example is the discharge of industrial waste and sewage into the ocean and this is very common in nations that are just developing.

Groundwater pollution is also known as groundwater contamination and there are slight relationships between surface water and groundwater. Groundwater is quite exposed to contamination from some sources that are not contaminants for surface water. It is important to note that the difference between point and non-point sources is quite irrelevant.

Classification of pollution sources:

Surface water and groundwater, even though they are separate resources are interrelated. It is surface water that percolates into the soil and it becomes groundwater. Also, groundwater can become surface water by feeding water bodies. Sources of water pollution are classified into two categories based on the origin.

Point source water pollution is contaminants that enter a water body through an identifiable and single source like a ditch or a pipe. A point source includes industrial storm water, storm sewer systems of municipals, and discharge from a sewage treatment facility, a factory or even a storm drain in the city.

Non-point source pollution is contamination that is not originated from just one single source. This form of pollution occurs from the agglomeration of little quantity of contaminants collected from a huge area. A typical example is the process of leaching of compounds of nitrogen from agricultural fields that are fertilised.

Sources of contaminants:

The particular type of contaminants that lead to pollution of water includes quite a wide range of pathogens, chemical and physical changes including discoloration and temperature elevation. Even though a number of the substances and chemicals that go under regulation occur naturally (calcium, manganese, iron, sodium, etc.) it is the concentration that determines what level is contamination and what level is a natural water component. It should be noted that negative impacts can arise from a high concentration of substances that occur naturally.

Substances that deplete oxygen can be materials that occur naturally like plant matter (e.g., grass and leaves) and also chemicals that are man-made. Other anthropogenic and natural substances may lead to turbidity which disrupts growth of plants by blocking light and blocks the gills of a few fish species. The alteration of the physical chemistry of water includes electrical conductivity, acidity (pH change), eutrophication and temperature. Eutrophication is basically the concentration increase of chemical nutrients of an ecosystem to a level that causes an increase in the primary productivity in the ecosystem.


Pathogens are microorganisms that cause diseases. Waterborne diseases can be produced by pathogens in either animal or human hosts. A popular indicator of water pollution is Coliform bacteria; it does not cause any disease but is a good bacterial indicator. Poor onsite systems of sanitation (pit latrines, septic tanks) or insufficiently treated sewage can result in high pathogens levels. Older cities have ageing infrastructures that may include sewage collection systems (valves, pumps, pipes) that are leaky and can lead to overflow of sanitary sewers. There are also combined sewers that sometimes discharge sewage that is untreated during storms. Poor management of livestock operations is also a major cause of pathogen discharges.

Inorganic and organic substances:

Inorganic and organic matter can also be contaminants. A lot of chemical substances are very toxic. Examples of water pollutants that are organic include: waste from food processing, detergents, herbicides and insecticides, by-products of disinfection, petroleum hydrocarbons, drug pollution, etc. examples of water pollutants that are inorganic on the other hand include: ammonia, fertilizers, acidity, chemical waste, heavy metals and silt.

Pollution Control:

Municipal waste water treatment:

Sewage is basically treated by sewage treatment plants that are centralised.

Safely managed and on-site sanitations:

If a household or business is not covered by a municipal waste treatment facility, there may be need for separate septic tanks that gives first treatment to the wastewater and infiltrates the wastewater into the ground. If this is not carefully and properly done, it can cause groundwater pollution.

Industrial wastewater treatment:

Most industrial facilities churn out a lot of wastewater that is quite like domestic wastewater and can also be treated by wastewater treatment plants. Some industries generate wastewater with very high concentration of nutrients like ammonia, toxic pollutants (e.g., organic compounds that are volatile, heavy metals), organic matter (e.g., grease and oil), need extra and well suited treatment systems.


Water is a very important resource to the survival of human race and covers more than 70% of the surface of the earth so it is crucial that we look into the study of water. Water pollution harms this important resource by making it unfit for human use and invariably causes harm to human health and the environment if proper measures are not taken to battle water pollution.

Essay on Water Pollution: Sources and Effects – Essay 8 (1500 Words)


The presence of such substances in the environment which can be harmful to the various forms of life on the earth is what we term as pollution. Under this category, the contamination of water bodies is specifically referred to as water pollution. Lakes, oceans, rivers and groundwater mainly constitute the water bodies on the earth. However, due to various activities, especially of the human beings, this water has been contaminated to such an extent that researches have been forced to study the effect of this phenomenon on the life on earth.

Types of Water Pollution:

The contamination of water bodies can be classified into three types, mainly, groundwater pollution, marine pollution and surface water pollution. Contaminated water from drains and industries which flows above the topmost layer of the soil usually creeps into the soil and gets mixed with the groundwater, thereby polluting it. This contaminated water then interacts with the nutrients present in the soil and alters their quality. This is termed as groundwater pollution.

Similarly, the wastewater released from the industries flows into the river and thereby reaches the seas and oceans. This is termed as marine pollution. It only affects humans but has an adverse effect on marine life as well.

In the case of surface water pollution, the wastewater remains on the surface of the earth and polluted it. This leads to the deficiency of nutrients in the soil as nutrients from other sources are not able to penetrate in the soil due to the presence of this contaminated water.

Sources and Effects of Water Pollution:

Different activities of humans have led to the contamination of the water bodies. For instance-

Industrial Waste – Pollutants such as mercury, asbestos, lead and petrochemicals which are released as industrial waste, find their way in the water bodies and contaminate them. Often this makes the water unfit not only for drinking but also for domestic use and survival of marine life as well. There have been numerous occasions where groups of dead fish have swept ashore at a given time due to the sudden increase of such chemicals in the water. Moreover, the spillage of oil from the ships often creates a hindrance for the oxygen in the air to get dissolved in water, thereby making it difficult for the marine animals to breathe.

Sewage and Waste Water – Another instance where the water bodies get contaminated is due to the release of sewage and wastewater directly into the bodies without being treated. Untreated wastewater can at times pose to be very poisonous not only for human life but for fishes as well.

Global Warming – Global warming is another phenomenon which has been often credited with the cause of increasing water pollution. There has been a rise in water temperature levels due to global warming which has even led to the death of water animals as well as plants as they were not able to survive in the increased temperatures.

Radioactive Waste – Radioactive waste is another major cause of water pollution. Radioactive substances are utilized in atomic power plants, mechanical, medicinal and other logical procedures. They can be found in watches, glowing timekeepers, TVs and x-beam apparatus. There are likewise normally occurring radioisotopes from creatures and inside the earth. If not appropriately discarded, radioactive waste can result in genuine water contamination episodes.

Dumping – Dumping of strong squanders and litters in water bodies cause water pollution. Litters incorporate glass, plastic, aluminium, Styrofoam and so on. They influence amphibian plants and creatures.

Measures to Control Water Pollution:

It has become utmost importance for all of us that we must seriously think over executing some strong steps so as to decrease, if not stop, this ever growing menace of water pollution. Some of the measures which can be incorporated are –

Educating People – First and above all measure, we ought to teach individuals on the harmful impacts of water pollution. In cities where lack of education is high among the rustic individuals, there ought to be state-funded training from those talented in these fields to assist the provincial individuals with stopping the release of waste in the water bodies. Moreover, open defecation and wrong fishing practices should be controlled.

Fines and Laws In the urban zones, Industries and production lines let out a considerable measure of their waste into the water bodies. An appropriate fine forced on them and in addition publication on their wrongdoing will enable them to stop these practices. Laws ought to be likewise authorized to guarantee that such industries stop from rough spillage strategies which wreck water assets like fish, lobsters and so on.

Media contribution – Using radio and TV with adverts on the impacts of water contamination additionally ought to be urged to get the message crosswise over and also Public Service Announcements. The more developments there are to lessen water pollution, the more secure the water bodies will be.

Appropriate transfer of waste There ought to be legitimate transfer of both strong and fluid waste. Experts in charge of waste administration in the nation must give territories to discard waste so that waste is not spilt all around. Businesses ought to be set up to reuse waste materials.

Appropriate utilization of chemicals on farms – Water pollution can be controlled if agriculturists are made to apply agro-synthetic concoctions legitimately on their farms through state-provided instructions. This will reduce the spillage of such synthetic compounds into waterways, lakes, tidal ponds and streams when rain falls. Farmers ought to be warned not to wash the compartments of the synthetics into water bodies.

Cleaning of Drains – To avoid water pollution, the drains are required to be cleaned all the time. In the provincial territories, pucca channels are required to be made, on the grounds that the water is going wherever in a proper way and not just reaching the rives and seas straightaway without being properly treated. We ought to build up an innovation to repel the channels from the water sources.

The inclusion of cleaning water bodies in the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Here is the need to actually implement the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in totality and make India open defecation free. By and by, the issue of open poo and the dumping of rubbish out in the open places still exist. When it rains, all the earth, trash and excreta get into streams or lakes, dirtying water sources. Generally, individuals themselves stream squander materials into waterways or lakes without legitimate seepage framework. Lakes and streams are additionally utilized for showering and washing purposes because of which gigantic amount of soil and contaminations get gathered into the water bodies. Additionally, because of these exercises, trash, excreta, fiery remains of the dead old garments and ruined materials are released into waterways and even at times, dead bodies are likewise tossed into the streams and water bodies. There are for all intents and purposes no toilets in the ghetto settlements situated close city-residences, or regardless of whether there is one, it can’t work easily. This calls for rehearsing great cleanliness in the genuine soul of Swachh Bharat.

Everyday Steps for all to Curb Water Pollution –

i. Keep your vehicle all around kept up and promptly benefit it on the off chance that you see any oil spilling from the vehicle.

ii. Buy ecologically friendly cleaning items that don’t hurt the land in the event they happen to be flushed or purged into a water body.

iii. Moderate your water use and don’t leave the water running when you are not utilizing it.

iv. Use, reuse and recycle everything you can. Plastics and papers might be sent to the reusing canister while a portion of your glass materials might have the capacity to be reused or re-purposed so that they don’t pollute the water.

v. Ensure non-recyclable waste is contained legitimately with the goal that it doesn’t spill into the land or road and contaminate it.


Water has played a pretty much noticeable role is the sustenance of life on the earth. Present-day practices have regularly disregarded the old practices of saving water leading to undesired results in the form of increasing water pollution.

In any case, in the present social orders, we frequently observe a recovery of old conventions and a more normal and manageable utilization of water. Finding the correct blend among ‘old’ and ‘present day’ rehearses finds practical answers for adapt to environmental change.

Water pollution has turned into a consistent expanding issue on the earth which is influencing human and creature lives in all viewpoints. Water contamination is tainting the drinking water by the harmful toxins produced by the human exercises. The entire water is getting dirtied through numerous sources, for example, urban spill over, rural, mechanical, sedimentary, syphoning from landfills, creature squanders, and other human exercises. Each one of the toxins is exceptionally destructive to nature. Human populace is expanding step by step and in this way their requirements and rivalry driving contamination to the best dimension. We have to pursue some extreme changes in our propensities to spare the water on earth and also proceed with the likelihood of life here. Or else, the day is not far off when life would not be able to survive on earth to the enormous levels of water pollution.

Message from Sophia!

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Regards, Sophia

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