Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных заданий (38.1 или 38.2). Укажите его номер и выполните согласно данному плану. В ответе на задание 38 числительные пишите цифрами.
38.1 Imagine that you are doing a project on what causes animal extinction in Zetland. You have found some data on the subject — the results of the opinion polls (see the table below).
Comment on the data in the table and give your opinion on the subject of the project.
|Causes||Number of respondents (%)|
|Destruction of wild habitats||41|
Write 200−250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an opening statement on the subject of the project;
— select and report 2−3 facts;
— make 1−2 comparisons where relevant and give your comments;
— outline a problem that can arise with protecting animals and suggest a way of solving it;
— conclude by giving and explaining your opinion on the importance of animal protection.
38.2 Imagine that you are doing a project on what social media sites are popular with teenagers in Zetland. You have found some data on the subject — the results оf the opinion polls (see the pie chart below).
Comment on the data in the diagram and give your opinion on the subject of the project.
What social media sites are popular with teenagers in Zetland
Write 200−250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an opening statement on the subject of the project;
— select and report 2−3 facts;
— make 1−2 comparisons where relevant and give your comments;
— outline a problem that one can face using social media sites and suggest a way of solving it;
— conclude by giving and explaining your opinion on the importance of social media for teenagers.
38.1 Animals become endangered and then extinct for a variety of reasons. While doing a project on what causes animal extinction in Zetland, I found a diagram containing some relevant data that I am going to comment on.
According to the diagram, as much as 41% of the Zetlanders think that wild habitats destruction is responsible for animal extinction in Zetland. Poaching comes second with 23% of those polled. It can also be seen that only 10% of the surveyed consider global warming to be the reason why animals die out.
The statistics analysis demonstrates that the number of the respondents (41%) who blame natural habitats destruction for animal extinction is almost four times as large as the number of those who think it is the global warming which causes it (10%). It is not surprising, because habitat destruction is one of the biggest threats facing plants and animal species throughout the world.
Although everybody has heard of animal extinction, not everyone has ever tried to contribute to animal protection and this seems to be a problem. One of the solutions could be following the 3-R rule: recycle, reuse, reduce. If everybody did it locally, the situation could change globally, and the environmental pollution could decrease significantly.
In conclusion, I believe that animals also play a critical role in the ecosystems and biospheres that make life on Earth possible for humans. Protecting animals, as well as their habitats, will help safeguard the future for all species, including homo sapiens. (248 words)
38.2 Today social networking sites are an inseparable part of our lives. While doing a project on what social media sites are popular with teenagers in Zetland, I found a diagram containing some relevant data that I am going to comment on.
According to the diagram, Facebook tops the list with 42% of the adolescents in Zetland using it. YouTube is the second most popular social media platform chosen by 23% of the surveyed. It should be noted that only 3% of the respondents like Telegram and it is the least preferred social media service.
The polling percentage shows that using Facebook is 12 times as popular as using Telegram, which is not surprising as Facebook is almost twice as old as Telegram and therefore is far more famous. Clearly, using WhatsApp is by 10% more favoured than using TikTok, which is quite explainable: WhatsApp is really convenient for texting at work and business messaging, whereas TikTok just entertains.
Although social media sites seem to be more a friend than a foe, overusing them causes people to spend less time interacting face-to-face and this seems to be a problem. To solve the problem, we should try to meet more often offline. Seeing each other lets people pick up body language and hence understand one another better.
To conclude, I believe that social media are extremely important for teenagers: they help them study, get entertained, share the latest news, socialize, make new friends and always stay in touch with their families, friends, teachers, etc. (252 words)
|Критерий||Критерии оценивания ответа на задание||Баллы|
|K1||Решение коммуникативной задачи|
Задание выполнено полностью: содержание отражает полно и точно все аспекты, указанные в задании; стилевое оформление речи выбрано правильно (допускается 1 неполный/неточный аспект и 1 нарушение нейтрального стиля)
Задание выполнено в основном: 1 аспект не раскрыт остальные
ИЛИ 1 аспект не раскрыт, и 1 раскрыт неполно/неточно,
ИЛИ 2–3 аспекта раскрыты неполно/неточно; стилевое оформление речи в основном правильно (допускаются 2–3 нарушения нейтрального стиля)
Задание выполнено не полностью: 1 аспект не раскрыт, и 2–3 раскрыты неполно/неточно,
ИЛИ 2 аспекта не раскрыты (остальные раскрыты полно),
ИЛИ 2 аспекта содержания не раскрыты и 1 раскрыт неполно/ неточно,
ИЛИ 4–5 аспектов раскрыты неполно/неточно; имеются ошибки в стилевом оформлении речи (допускаются 4 нарушения нейтрального стиля)
Задание не выполнено: все случаи, не указанные в оценивании на 1, 2 и 3 балла, ИЛИ ответ не соответствует требуемому объёму,
ИЛИ более 30% ответа имеет непродуктивный характер (т. е. текстуально совпадает с опубликованным источником)
Высказывание логично, структура текста соответствует предложенному плану, текст правильно разделён на абзацы средства логической связи использованы правильно
Высказывание логично, структура текста соответствует предложенному плану, текст правильно разделён на абзацы, средства логической связи использованы правильно (допускается 1–3 ошибки)
|В высказывании имеются 4–5 ошибок в организации текста
И/ИЛИ отсутствует вступление или заключение
|В высказывании имеются 6 и более ошибок в организации текста,
И/ИЛИ отсутствует вступление и заключение,
И/ИЛИ предложенный план ответа полностью не соблюдается,
И/ИЛИ отсутствует деление на абзацы
Используемый словарный запас соответствует высокому уровню сложности задания, практически нет нарушений использовании лексики (допускается 1 лексическая ошибка)
Используемый словарный запас соответствует высокому уровню сложности задания, однако имеются 2–3 лексические ошибки,
ИЛИ словарный запас ограничен, но лексика использована правильно
Используемый словарный запас не вполне соответствует высокому уровню сложности задания, в тексте имеются 4 лексические ошибки
Используемый словарный запас не соответствует высокому уровню сложности задания, в тексте имеются 5 и более лексических ошибок
Используемые грамматические средства соответствуют высокому уровню сложности задания, нарушений практически нет (допускаются 1–2 неповторяющиеся грамматические ошибки)
Используемые грамматические средства соответствуют высокому уровню сложности задания, однако в тексте имеются 3–4 грамматические ошибки
Используемые грамматические средства не вполне соответствуют высокому уровню сложности задания, в тексте имеются 5–7 грамматических ошибок
Используемые грамматические средства не соответствуют высокому уровню сложности задания, имеются 8 и более грамматических ошибок
|K5||Орфография и пунктуация|
Орфографические ошибки практически отсутствуют. Текст разделён на предложения с правильным пунктуационным оформлением (допускается 1 орфографическая ##И/ИЛИ 1 пунктуационная ошибка)
В тексте имеются 2–4 орфографические
И/ИЛИ пунктуационные ошибки
В тексте имеются 5 и более орфографических
И/ИЛИ пунктуационных ошибок
Вот одна из сложных тем Writing Task 2, которые были на официальных тестах IELTS в некоторых странах мира в мае 2017 года. Тема касается вымирания видов животных. На первый взгляд тема может показаться простой, но без специальных знаний может быть трудно быстро найти аргументы. У меня получилось! Смотрите на результат.
Читайте как можно больше тем эссе и примеров к ним, чтобы обогащать свой язык новыми грамматическими и лексическими конструкциями, пополнять свой запас аргументов и узнавать что-то новое из разных сфер жизни.
Эссе ниже я написал за 40 минут — это моя оригинальная работа, а не скопированное из Интернета эссе.
Тема эссе Writing Task 2 (была на официальных экзаменах IELTS в мае 2017 года):
Some animal species are now completely extinct. Many people believe that we should prevent this from happening in the future. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Introduction – перефразируем тему и покажем структуру эссе
Essay body 1 –
Topic sentence: Доводы в пользу защиты видов:
(1) животные способствуют естественным биологическим процессам — опыление, поедание вредных растений и животных.
(2) эстетический довод — исчезновение видов нарушает природный баланс и мешает людям наслаждаться красотой природы (экотуризм растет в своей популярности, и это может стать одним из инструментов спасения животных).
Essay body 2 –
Topic sentence: Мы не можем полностью влиять на исчезновение видов
(1) природные условия сильнее человека и могут вызывать естественное исчезновение видов животных.
(2) остановить индустриальный рост, отчасти ведущий к исчезновению видов, остановить невозможно, потому что такой рост важен для жизни человечества.
Conclusion – Возможный ответ на вопрос «Do you agree or disagree?» — Agree, человек должен прилагать все возможные усилия для сохранения видов животных. Исключением являются природные катаклизмы, которые влекут исчезновение видов животных и на которые человек не может влиять.
The extinction of certain animal species nowadays causes concern throughout the world, and it is believed that humanity is responsible for taking measures to reverse this trend. However, besides the impact of civilization on nature, some other possible reasons for such extinction need to be taken into account. The following paragraphs will shed light on the role of people in saving fauna and whether this issue could be completely controlled by human kind.
Firstly, there are obvious reasons why people should work towards protecting endangered animal species. Thus, each animal kind is an indispensable part of sophisticated natural biological processes, such as pollination or removing malevolent plants or animals, and protection of fauna is of paramount importance for people. From the practical side of the issue, saving species for the sake of preserving the aesthetic appearance of nature is essential, and, as an example, eco-tourism widely growing in popularity is seen as one of the tools in protecting nature at large and animals in particular.
Nonetheless, it would be wrong to put all the blame for animal extinction on humans as there are natural reasons for this phenomenon. To be more precise, some natural conditions may lead to species disappearance – climate change, epidemics or disasters of various kinds could heavily influence animals. On the other hand, with the growing human population, it would be quite hard to slow down the industrial production that not only provides for people, but at the same time pollutes the environment and negatively influences animals.
As a conclusion, it is imperative that people consolidate efforts in preventing animals from disappearing, and I totally support this attitude. Still, it is important to remember that natural circumstances that could hardly be controlled by human would continue to take their toll on animals.
Кстати, вы можете задать свой вопрос касательно IELTS, я постараюсь ответить! Напишите на adminmyielts.kz
3 pages, 1003 words
Animal extinction is happening nowadays due to the multiple factors of environmental degradation. The primary cause of environmental degradation is human disturbance. Extinctions caused by human are generally considered to be are recent phenomena. When humans convert wild areas for agriculture, forestry, urban development, or water projects including dams, hydropower, and irrigation, they reduce or eliminate its usefulness as a habitat for the other species that live there. The temperature of the environmental impact varies with the cause, the habitat, the plants and animals that inhabit it.
Fragmentation of habitat carries long term environmental impacts, some of which can destroy entire ecosystem. Habitat loss poses the greatest threat to species. Some wildlife species require large land in order to meet all of their needs for food, habitat, and other resources. These animals are called area sensitive. When the environment is fragmented, the large patches of habitat no longer exist. It becomes more difficult for the wildlife to get the resources to survive. A more critical result of habitat fragmentation is land disturbance. On the other hand, natural disaster is also one of the courses of animal extinction.
Mother Nature causes environmental problems too. Things like landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and wildfires can completely decimate local plant and animal communities to the point where they can no longer function. This can either come about through physical destruction via natural disasters or by the long-term degradation of resources by the introduction of an invasive alien species to a new habitat. The latter often occurs after hurricanes, when lizards and insects are washed across small stretches of water to foreign environments.
2 pages, 837 words
The Essay on Environmental Effects When Species Become Extinct
Animals are, like us, endangered species on an endangered planet, and we are the ones who are endangering them, it, and ourselves. They are innocent sufferers in a hell of our making. Now a days is common to listen that more and more kind of animals are going to be part of a long list of species in extinction called “the red list”, When a animal is endangered it means that they are disappearing …
Sometimes, the environment cannot keep up with the new species, and degradation can occur. acid rain is also normally occurs when sulphur dioxide from coal plant emission combines with moisture present in the air. A chemical reaction creates the acid rain. Acid rain can be acidity and pollute lakes and streams. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), if enough acid rain falls in a given environment, it can acidify the water or soil to a point where no life can be sustained. Plants die off. The animals that depend upon them disappear. The condition of the environment deteriorates.
The third major reason of endangerment and extinction is poaching and commercial hunting. A poacher is someone who hunts and kills rare animals for profit. Often times an animal is killed in such a vicious way that it not only cruel but inhumane as well. Poachers do not hunt for food or for legal side game hunting. They will kill and decimation often times for one small part of the animal that they can sell on the Black Market. Elephants are hunted solely for their tusks which are made out of ivory, an extremely valuable material that is often used to make several different kinds of art or jewelry.
Tigers, leopards, cheetahs and jaguars are hunted for their fur hides which can be made into all kinds of clothing. Lastly, rhinos are hunted and killed for their horns which are believed by some to contain magical powers and spirits. Some of the time, rare animals are trapped and exported to private zoos or laboratories, which is just as serious of a crime. Although most countries have strict rules and regulations about the hunting and transporting of these animals, it seems that a few are always getting around these laws or getting away with their crimes.
Commercial hunting is most popularly known by dolphin hunting in Japan. They hunt dolphins for food and the profits from dolphin as showcase ventures. They not even realize that dolphins are sensitive to sound pressure, so dolphin will suicide when they are suffering. Although many countries such as the US and Canada are now leading the way to ban all such whale hunting, many other countries such as Japan, Norway, Sweden, and Finland continue to hunt these whales . Laws and regulations have been raised to stop this hunting within 200 nautical miles of many countries.
3 pages, 1098 words
The Essay on Should animal hunting be banned
Should Animal Hunting Be Banned? I personally think animal hunting should be banned because hunters are one of the main reasons why animals suffer, are extinct, and are endangered. Because of hunting animals are becoming extinct, and with arsenal of rifles, shotguns, muzzle loaders, handguns, bows and arrows, hunters kill more than 200 million animals yearly. It Is Cruel; Animals deserve just us …
The sea still remains free though to any and all hunting that can be done. Pollution is the introduction of potentially harmful chemical or physical constituents into the environment, which substances that can cause animal extinction. Chemical pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen are causing functional impairment or death of organisms. In recent times humans have spread thousands of synthetic chemicals into the environment and altered the distribution of many naturally occurring substances which leads to conditions that wildlife species had never experienced before.
In many instances these new conditions have disrupted the delicate biological machinery evolved by organisms over thousands of years. Besides that, the use of synthetic chemicals to control pests, principally insects, weeds, and fungi, became an integral part of agriculture and disease control after World War II. These chemicals were credited with providing an inexpensive means of increasing crop production, preventing spoilage of stored foods, and saving many millions of human lives by the prevention of certain insect-borne diseases.
When birds and mammals become coated with oil, the insulating property of their feathers or fur is lost. Feathers and fur provide insulation by trapping a layer of air between the skin and the external environment. Oiling disrupts the arrangement of feathers and hair that retains this insulating layer. In arctic environments, the resulting hypothermia contributes to the death of many animals. According to the statistic a total of 36,466 dead seabirds, 1,015 dead sea otters, and 144 dead bald eagles were recovered from the spill area.
For several reasons these statistics are not indicative of the total numbers of animals that died. Many of the 1400 miles of affected shoreline consist of inaccessible or poorly mapped areas that could not be investigated. Furthermore, many animals that were killed were never recovered. Some species, such as harbor seals, sink when they die and therefore are not represented at all in the mortality counts. Actual mortality of oiled birds probably exceeded 100,000, the highest losses of birds recorded for any oil spill (Heneman 1989).
3 pages, 1103 words
The Essay on Animal Testing 12
Humans and animals have been living side by side ever since planet Earth gave birth to its first human beings. Throughout time, however, human race have started to take the top of the food chain and with the food chain came the whole planet. This “reign” over the planet has put animals in an extremely difficult situation. We human beings started to take and take for ourselves leaving Earth’s …
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When we talk of animal extinction, we talk of a species in particular becoming extinct. So when there is an extinction of an animal we simply mean that a specific species no longer exists or have died. So when the members or individuals of a certain group die out and cease to be present in the earth’s surface then we will be in order to say that extinction has taken place.
It is also possible to say that an animal can be extinct when the available individuals of a certain species are not able to produce thus making it inevitable for such animals to have their offspring in future. So basically, when there is no hope or evidence that an animal can be present in the next few months or years because of inability to produce then it is extinct. (Raup,13)
Extinction does take place in living organisms, plants and animals alike. So when it takes place in animals we will refer to this as animal extinction.
In the past, there have been five great events of extinction which have shaped the earth in its cataclysmic ways. These five events have wiped almost fifty percent of life in a day in a species in the past few years. And today, we are in the sixth great extinction, Holocene event of extinction. This event started almost fifty thousand years ago.
Despite the rich environment that we have, you find that animal extinction has been on the rise. What could be the reasons behind this? Why should animals extinct when they already exist? In this paper, my concern is on the rate of extinction in the animals. Think of the rate at which biodiversity is interfered with. What really causes animal extinction to be this fast? What could be the possible effects of animal extinction and lastly, what are some of the mitigation measures that can be taken to help reduce the rate of animal extinction?
In the twenty first century, there have been major causes of animal extinction. These include habitat degradation in that the surrounding the life of animals is interfered with and thus become harmful for the life of the species. We find that there can be degradation to the habitat like poisoning which can directly mess up with the life of a species. It may not only affect the life but also its productivity, life span among others. Through this degradation, you find that the affected species can extinct very fast.
Also, there is over-exploitation which results from the total number of individuals of a species that use the same economic resources. Due to the nature of these resources, when they are exhausted, the lives of the species will be at stake. Animals of a given species will be struggling to fulfill its biological needs and yet the resources will not be there. This will lead to starvation to death among other causes.
Another cause of extinction can be attributed to the climate change that is human induced. Human beings have played a very big role in ensuring that the climate of the earth is not static. The climate has been changing due to various activities that they, human beings, do think they take for the sake of their lives. There is emission of many gases into the atmosphere which do interfere with the ozone layer thus exposing the earth to the dangers of the suns rays. Apart from the emission o the gases, human beings also do play a role in the desertification thus interfering with the rain cycles in the world among other possible effects of desertification to the climatic change. (Whitty,4)
In addition to these, there are also some demographic phenomena and population genetics that do affect the evolution of animals thus risks extinction to certain species. Genus extinction could be as a result of limited geographic range thus can lead to mass extinction. In relation to this point, natural selection also play a very important role in that the weaker species is always get rid of and the stronger species is left to survive. In this sense, extinction of animals takes place through natural selection.
Predation, completion and diseases can also cause extinction in animals. It is natural for animals to compete for resources which are scarce. We find that in the process of evolution, many animals did compete for the resources and in the process many weaker animals were extinct. The process of completion may not take place naturally, but in some cases animals are subjected to competitions by man or due natural reason. In these cases, animals do find themselves in areas that they are not fit for; the completion is very stiff and not easy to get the resources. In such cases, the animals may come to extinct. Predation on the other hand refers to the process where a species is simply the food to a certain species. When the predators feed on the preys, the lives of the preys are not restored. Therefore when one is killed it means that the number is reduced. So if the population of the predators overweighs that of the pres then the prey is in danger of extinction. They are like to be fed on and wiped pout of the earths surface. Finally diseases can cause extinction in a species. For instance, when a there is an outbreak of a disease to a specific species, there is likelihood of this species loosing many of its members before the way forward is found. This is why diseases are always counteracted with speed.
There is also a phenomena referred to as genetic pollution which also can cause extinction of a certain species.
Effects of animal extinction
When we lose the animals through extinction, we lose biodiversity. Biodiversity simply refers to the total number species as well as ecosystems in the earth’s surface or of a given place. It therefore reflects that when animals extinct, they reduces the variety of animals that were present in the earth’s surface. In this world, there are different roles that are played by animals of different types. So when we lose these animals there it means that we lose also its important, the role it used to play will no longer be enjoyed. This is the complication that animal extinction brings to our environment. (Gary, 10)
Animal extinction is a threat to the human life. Just imagine a world without other animals? Just try to figure how boring this life can be, everywhere you go you meet one species of the animalia kingdom, will it then mean that human beings should start adopt to be vegetarians forever. Animal extinction is a threat in that there are a lot of things that the animals provide to the human beings that can not be counted. Look at food, clothing, hides and skins, look at attraction, look at the role that biodiversity at large. So the extinction of animals has got more disadvantages than advantages.
Animal extinction is a phenomenon that takes place in our societies. We can not pretend or rather ignore this yet our action and activities do contribute towards it. In this sense therefore it calls for every individual to take responsibility to restore the natural creations. In whatever way you may look at this, animal extinction touches us, not forgetting that we are also animals. So we can better participate by taking good care of our environment as we consider the generations to come. By doing providing a healthy environment, lives of animals will be boosted.
Gray, I. “Animal Extinction and Endangerment Main Causes.” 1 September 2008.
Raup, D. M. Extinction: Population Growth and Ecosystem Limits; Bad Genes or Bad Luck? W.W. Norton and Company. New York. 1991
Whitty, J. “Animal Extinction – the greatest threat to mankind.” in The Independent. 26 November 2011
Post Views: 111
In your English class you have been talking about endangered species, animals or plants that will likely become extinct. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.
Write an essay using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.
Around the world many wildlife species are in danger of extinction. How can we protect endangered animals?
- hunting wild animals
- . …….(your own idea)
These days even more and more animals and plants are becoming extinct. That means they must be protected in order to maintain the number of animals or plants, which are threatened by extinction.
The real question is how to protect them. For example, pollution is a huge threat to every single animal or plant. Pollution is the reason for global warming, which causes the destruction of many animals’ habitat. For example, the icy parts in the north and south are melting very slowly, which puts penguins and polar bears in danger. In order to prevent that people shouldn’t throw away junk in the nature and should start recycling more.
Pollution is not the only reason for the extinction of animals. Unfortunately, many wild animals are being hunted nowadays. This is mainly because of their beautiful fur, which is «perfect» for making coats. In order to help many people have decided not to wear leather or fur at all.
Every year dozens of forests are being destroyed by people who need to open more place for construction. If they want to save animals from extinction, they first have to reduce the construction, which will save a lot of forests and therefore – animals’s habitat. (!!!)
All these problems have solutions. Animals and plants are very important for our planet and, since we are the ones who destroy them, it is up to us to do the right thing and protect them.
Notes !!! — You are supposed to make only one suggestion.
I need your comments about my essay…Please and if I have problem in my writing, tell me??
Nowadays, many animals have disappeared from the earth whether by natural reasons or human’s hands particularly the extinct animals which we need to pay more attention to protect them from vanishing. In fact, I disagree with idea that animals have been created to serve human being so that we have the right to do whatever we want on them. I strongly support the claim that extinct species will only be saved if the public have changed its behaviors such as destroying lands and hunting.
Destroying lands plays an important factor which threatens the existence of animals. As an excuse of expanding economy and investment, many people start devastate forests in order to build buildings, flats, factories and farms. Accordingly, lands shrink and animals become exposing to the anger of natural without shelters. Furthermore, if people do not take animals homes, they spoil their lands by producing the factories garbage, dirt and poisons. As a result that led at the end to a massacre of animals.
Besides, Land detriment, haunting is another element which helps animals to disappear. Haunters hunt animals to sell their valuable parts which are considered very expensive. For instance, in Africa, hunters exert great efforts to track down rhinoceros to gain its costly horns which people use to make daggers that cost from 500YR to 2millions YR. Also, Ivory trade aids to reduce the number of African elephants to 400,000 the end of century.
In summary, we have to stop demolish forests, which are the homes of animals, and hunting animals to save endangered species then keep the balance in the earth. We should not forget that we still need them in our meals. In my opinion, protecting those animals is not person’s duty but it is of all human being’s accountability.