Imagine that you are doing a project on what’s the most popular cultural holidays destinations in Russia are. You have found some data on the subject — results of the opinion polls (see the diagram below) Comment on the data in the diagram and give your opinion on the subject of the project.
Most popular cultural holidays destination in Russia:
S.Petersburg 56%, Moscow 22% The Golden Ring 12% Kazan 7% Veliky Novgorod 3%.
Use the following plan:
-make an opening statement on the subject of the project
-Select and report 2-3 facts
-make 1-2 comparisons where relevant
-outline a problem that can arise with the cultural holidays and suggest a way of solving it
-conclude by giving your opinion on the most attractive cultural holiday destination in Russia
Показать текст целиком
There are plenty of great cultural cities to visit in Russia that you can easily choose from. The project I am working on is aimed at establishing what the most popular cultural holidays destinations in Russia are. I have found some data on this issue and I am going to analyse them in this essay.
It is clear from the table that the vast majority of the respondents chose St. Petersburg as the most popular cultural city with 56%. The second the most common cultural place to visit is Moscow with 22%. In addition, the small minority (only 3%) opts for Veliky Novgorod, putting this city at the bottom of the table.
Comparing the 1st and the 2nd positions in the table, the most remarkable difference is noticeable between the percentage of people who call St. Petersburg and Moscow as the most popular cultural destinations with 56% and 22% r
Вы видите 35% текста.
Оплатите один раз, чтобы читать целиком это
и другие 6000 сочинений сразу по всем предметам
Доступ будет предоставлен навсегда, откроется сразу после оплаты.
Купить пожизненный доступ за 499 ₽
- 3 из 3К1Решение коммуникативной задачи (РКЗ)
- 2 из 3К2Организация текста
- 2 из 3К3Лексика
- 2 из 3К4Грамматика
- 2 из 2К5Орфография и пунктуация
- ИТОГО: 11 из 14
✅ 55 сочинений по литературе от эксперта
✅ Подготовка к ЕГЭ по литературе для ленивых
There are many national holidays in Russia, when people all over the country do not work and have special celebrations.
The first holiday of the year is New Year’s Day. People see the new year in at midnight on the 31st of December. They greet the new year with champagne and listen to the Kremlin chimes beating 12 o’clock.
There are lots of New Year traditions in Russia. In every home there is a New Year tree glittering with coloured lights and decorations. Children always wait for Father Frost to come and give them a present. Many people consider New Year’s Day to be a family holiday. But the young prefer to have New Year parties of their own.
A renewed holiday in our country is Christmas. It is celebrated on the 7th of January. It’s a religious holiday and a lot of people go to church services on that day.
On the 8th of March we celebrate Women’s Day when men are supposed to do everything about the house, cook all the meals and give women flowers.
The greatest national holiday in our country is Victory Day. On the 9th of May, 1945, our army completely defeated the German fascists and the Great Patriotic War ended. We’ll never forget our grandfathers and grandmothers who died to defend our Motherland. We honour their memory with a minute of silence and put flowers on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
Independence Day is a new holiday in our country. On the 12th of June, 1992, the first President of Russia was elected.
We also celebrate Day of the Defender of Motherland on the 23d of February, Easter, Day of Knowledge and lots of professional holidays which are not public holidays and banks, offices and schools do not close.
Праздники в России
В России много праздников, во время которых люди по всей стране не работают и проводят торжественные мероприятия.
Основные праздники: Новый год, Международный Женский День, 1-е мая, День Победы и День независимости.
Первый праздник в году — Новый год. Люди встречают новый год в полночь 31 декабря. Они приветствуют новый год шампанским и слушают Кремлевские куранты в 12 часов.
Есть много новогодних традиций в России. В каждом доме сверкает елка разноцветными огнями и украшениями. Дети всегда ждут Деда Мороза, который приходит и дарит им подарки. Многие люди считают, что Новый год — это семейный праздник. Но молодежь предпочитает проводить новогодние вечеринки.
Возобновленный праздник в нашей стране — Рождество. Оно празднуется 7 января. Это религиозный праздник, и много людей идет на церковные службы в этот день.
Самый большой национальный праздник в нашей стране — День Победы. 9 мая 1945 года, наша армия полностью разгромила немецких фашистов и закончилась Великая Отечественная война. Мы никогда не забудем наших дедов и бабушек, которые погибли, защищая нашу Родину. Мы чтим их память минутой молчания и возложением цветов к могиле Неизвестного солдата.
День независимости — новый праздник в нашей стране. 12 июня 1992 года был избран первый президент России.
Мы также отмечаем День защитника отечества 23 февраля, Пасху, День знаний и множество профессиональных праздников, которые не являются государственными праздниками и банки, офисы и школы не закрываются в эти дни.
My Favourite Holiday
Мой любимый праздник
Holidays have always been there. They can be connected with some national, family or personal celebrations. Some holidays are international ones such as New Year’s Day or Women’s Day. Some holidays which at first were national or religious have become popular all over the world, for example, Saint Valentine’s Day.
Праздники всегда существовали. Они могут быть связаны с некоторыми национальными, семейными или личными торжествами. Некоторые праздники являются международными, такие как Новый год или Женский День. Некоторые праздники, которые вначале были национальными или религиозными, стали популярными во всем мире, например, День Святого Валентина.
I like almost all holidays. Most of them are non-working days. One of my favourite holidays is New Year. People of all ages like celebrating it. New Year falls on the night of the 31st of December. So the 1st of January is the beginning of the year.
Мне нравятся почти все праздники. Большинство из них – нерабочие дни. Один из моих любимых праздников – Новый год. Люди всех возрастов любят его праздновать. Новый год приходится на ночь 31 декабря. Итак, 1 января – начало года.
I like this holiday because people seem to be kinder and better. Everyone feels this magic in the air. At the beginning of December almost all buildings are decorated with some festive things such as garlands, tinsel and figures of Santa Claus and deer.
Мне нравится этот праздник, потому что люди кажутся добрее и лучше. Все чувствуют это волшебство повсюду. В начале декабря почти все здания уже украшены праздничными декорациями, гирляндами, мишурой и фигурками Санта-Клауса и оленей.
One of the most important parts of celebrating this holiday is gifts. I think it is necessary to prepare them as early as possible. As for me, I prepare gifts in November or at the beginning of December. I pack them into the beautiful boxes which I make by myself. It is important to cook the dishes. Every year we set the table. We serve vegetable salads, pastry, baked chicken and so on. Of course, every year we buy Christmas tree and decorate it with toys and garlands.
Одна из самых важных частей празднования – подарки. Я думаю, что необходимо подготовить их как можно раньше. Что касается меня, я готовлю подарки в ноябре или в начале декабря. Я упаковываю их в красивые коробки, которые я делаю сама. Важно приготовить блюда. Каждый год мы накрываем стол. Мы подаем к праздничному столу овощные салаты, печенье, запеченную курицу и так далее. Конечно, каждый год мы покупаем елку и украшаем ее игрушками и гирляндами.
The most popular holidays in our country are New Year, Easter, Workers’ Day, International Women’s Day and Victory day. They are celebrated all over the country.
As for my favourite holiday, it is New Year. I always celebrate it like all people in Russia. Everyone really likes this holiday. Everyone buys Christmas trees and decorates the flats. On New Year’s Eve families gather together and have dinner. They usually dance, have fun and eat tangerines. They drink champagne and make wishes at midnight. Then they give each other presents. Children believe that Ded Moroz gives them presents too. New Year is a wonderful holiday. A lot of people make New Year’s resolutions.
I like New Year a lot because it is time when people give and receive presents.
Everyone likes to receive presents. But I prefer to give presents. Giving presents is to give happiness. I like to choose presents and look at the reaction of the person when I give him the present. There is nothing better than knowing that your present made someone happy.
That’s all I wanted to say.
Ну, я хочу поговорить о праздниках.
Самые популярные праздники в нашей стране — Новый год, Пасха, День трудящихся, Международный женский день и День Победы. Их отмечают по всей стране.
Что касается моего любимого праздника, то это Новый год. Я всегда его отмечаю, как и все россияне. Всем очень нравится этот праздник. Все покупают елки и украшают квартиры. В канун Нового года семьи собираются вместе и ужинают. Обычно они танцуют, веселятся и едят мандарины. В полночь они пьют шампанское и загадывают желания. Затем они дарят друг другу подарки. Дети верят, что Дед Мороз тоже дарит им подарки. Новый год — чудесный праздник. Многие люди дают новогодние обещания.
Я люблю Новый Год, потому что это время когда люди получают и дарят подарки. Все любят получать подарки. Но я предпочитаю дарить подарки. Дарить подарки — значит дарить счастье. Мне нравится выбирать подарки и смотреть на реакцию человека, когда я даю ему подарок. Нет ничего лучше, чем знать, что твой подарок сделал кого-то счастливым.
Это все, что я хотела сказать.
Если Вы заметили ошибку или опечатку, выделите текст и нажмите Ctrl+Enter.
Тем самым окажете неоценимую пользу проекту и другим читателям.
I want to tell you about my favourite holidays. Russians like holidays a lot. We usually celebrate each of them with a lot of food and presents and in big groups of relatives and friends.
I like New Year a lot. My mother and I usually decorate a New Year tree with colourful glass balls and toys. I also like cooking New Year supper, especially Olivier salad. At night we have a real feast. We eat what we have cooked and watch TV. After clock strikes midnight, New Year comes. We drink champagne and give each other presents.
My other favourite celebration is my birthday which is in September. On this day I am in the centre of attention. My parents and friends give me presents, and I usually have a birthday party at home. I invite close friends and we have fun together.
I also like St.Valentine’s Day, which is a new holiday in Russia. It is celebrated on the 14th of February. On this day I usually give small greeting cards to all my friends as a sign of my attention. We also have Love mail at school. A box is placed on the ground floor of the building and anybody can put into it a card with the name of the person it is addressed to and the number of the form. In the middle of the day the mail is delivered and it is nice to get a card from a person you don’t know.
I really enjoy holidays and celebrations!
Словарь — Vocabulary:
be addressed [bi: a’drest] быть адресованным
be delivered [bi: di’livad] быть доставленным
celebrate [‘selibreit] отмечать
close friend [‘klauz frend] близкий друг
decorate [‘dekareit] украшать
feast [fi:st] пир
glass ball стеклянный шар
relative [‘relativ] родственник
strike [strark] бить (о часах)
Вопросы к топику — Questions:
- What are your favourite holidays?
- Do Russians have holidays?
- How does your family celebrate them?
Сохранить эту страницу в социальной сети:
Англо-русский словарь онлайн
5 тестов скорости!
- Сочинение манан кукамай на чувашском языке
- Сочинение образование и самообразование
- Сочинение по фильму страсти христовы
- Отцы и дети на английском сочинение
- Сочинение выбор профессии план
Russia’s domestic tourism is continuously developing, although there are still problems with infrastructure, services and sometimes extremely expensive tickets, especially for long distance destinations. Some Russians have indeed never been abroad, but they have the world’s largest country at their disposal and usually arrange holidays on the Black Sea coast, in Caucasian mountains or save up to visit the two capitals, Moscow and St. Petersburg.
St. Basil’s Cathedral and Kremlin
We are used to saying that Moscow is not Russia. However, despite this, Moscow is still the center of everything, and the most popular destination of a domestic tourist. Visiting the capital is a sort of a ‘must-do’ experience for Russians from the other regions. And despite the fact that a ticket to Moscow will cost a Far East resident more than a ticket to a neighboring Asian country, a trip to Moscow is almost a pilgrimage.
Beyond the obvious selfie on the Red Square, domestic tourists adore the GUM department store, the new Zaryadye Park, the Tretyakov Gallery, and among the must-visit places in Moscow are a theater, a circus and the Zoo.
According to the Russian Union of Tourism Industry, more than 22 million tourists from across the country visited Moscow in 2019, including traveling for sports events, as well as on business trips.
2. Krasnodar Territory
Port of Sochi
Nikolay Gyngazov/Global Look Press
“If there is a heaven on Earth, it’s the Krasnodar Territory.” (Если есть на свете рай — это Краснодарский край). This is a popular proverb in Russia, which was proved by about 16 million domestic tourists in 2019. Indeed this region in the south is a great place for summer holidays — it’s situated on the coasts of two seas — the Black Sea and the Azov Sea — and has lots of resort cities (such as Anapa, Gelendzik, Novorossiysk, Eisk, etc.). And the most popular destination is, of course, Sochi and its suburbs.
Many Russian kids go there for summer camps and return as adults — and there is accommodation for all budgets and entertainment for all tastes. The climate there is mild, so even visiting in winter is a great idea — and a short train ride up its mountains will take you to Sochi’s great ski resorts.
“As a student, I loved going to our Moscow State University camp two hours by train from Sochi,” Julia from Moscow says. “It has it all: nice beach, gorgeous view of the Caucasian mountains, cheap and great local food. We met lots of people from the city of Krasnodar — which doesn’t have access to the sea, so the citizens spend each weekend in Sochi.”
3. St. Petersburg
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood
Nikolay Gyngazov/Global Look Press
This city is often compared with Venice, Amsterdam and other historical European cities. And indeed, it was specifically built as a “window to Europe”, because Emperor Peter the Great wanted Russia to be more like a European country.
About 9 million tourists from all around Russia visited the city in 2019. “When you come to St. Petersburg, it seems that there are more royal palaces than ordinary living houses, and you just can’t get enough of the beauty that surrounds you,” says Sasha from Moscow, who tries to spend one weekend a year in the northern capital.
There are plenty of ways to get to St. Petersburg from Moscow, so there are almost never problems with tickets (unless big international events such as the annual Economic Forum). As a rule, St. Petersburg is a destination for two- or three-day school trips. It’s a perfect place for historical and cultural enrichment. Here are 5 must-see places for your first visit.
Lastochkino gnezdo castle (the Swallow’s Nest)
Crimea has always been a favorite resort for Russians — Chekhov and Tolstoy liked coming here, and its nice climate is perfect for recovering from a range of illnesses. Russian tsars had residences here, which were turned into Soviet sanatoriums. There is also the legendary ’Artek’ pioneer camp, which is still in operation. And in 2019, about 7 million Russians visited Crimea.
The peninsula has a big number of resorts all around its perimeter, but one of the most popular cities is Yalta, the ‘Russian Rivera’ and the main city of the southern coast. While in Sevastopol, you can not only have a rest, but also explore ancient history, as there is a museum on ruins of the Greek colony Chersonesus. At the same time, Sevastopol is a city with navy and military glory, that was under siege many times and successfully fought and defended the peninsula.
Besides the great sea resort, Crimea also has mountains and its peak, Ai-Petri, is a great place for climbing — check out our video about this sight.
For a Moscow citizen, a ticket to Vladivostok can cost as much as an all inclusive package tour to Turkey (and many Russians would actually choose Turkey), however, the idea of appearing on the other side of the world — and still be in Russia — is exciting. And it’s all about nature and the ocean there. In 2019, more than 4 million Russian tourists visited Vladivostok, and the number of foreign tourists is rapidly increasing every year.
“Comparing with the noisy, crowdy Moscow, just observing Vladivostok’s giant bridges and remote mayaks is a kind of meditation and an absolutely different feeling of your surroundings,” says photographer Gleb, who considers it lucky to have had a chance to visit Vladivostok on a business trip.
Another appealing thing about the Far East of Russia is the seafood — ordinary citizens of central Russia don’t usually get to try Kamchatka crab at home, but here, it’s absolutely affordable. And moreover, there are also lots of museums, art galleries and many interesting sites to explore.
6. Caucasian Mineral Waters
Park in Zheleznovosk resort city
Caucasian Mineral Waters is a group of resort cities in Stavropol Territory, among them are Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovosdsk, Kislovodsk, Essentuki and Mineralnye Vody (most of the titles are somehow related to water).
“I love going to Kislovodsk, drinking mineral water and adoring the Caucasian Mountains,” says Vladimir, admitting that he doesn’t need to visit “any places abroad”. Vladimir is lucky — his work provides him a discount package tour to Kislovodsk.
It has to be said that prices there are not that cheap, however, these resorts offer a range of medical treatments and special water drinking programs. These places have been popular destinations since the 19th century, that Russian writer Mikhail Lermontov famously described in his novel ‘Hero of Our Times’ — and, in fact, Lermontov was killed in a duel in Pyatigorsk… In 2019, around 2 million tourists visited the resorts.
7. Altai Mountains
Mountain lake in the Altai
This is one of the most beautiful places in Russia, though not that easy to reach and still with a poor infrastructure. Going there, one should always take enough spare money and it’s best to arrange a car or hiking trip (here are some other tips). Tourist agencies also offer exhilarating horse riding in the mountains. And all the lack of comfort and inconveniences will be forgotten after you follow along Altai’s Chuysky Trakt, one of the most picturesque highways in Russia.
“That’s probably the most beautiful place I’ve ever been to and the most unforgettable and extreme experience,” says Kira from Kuznetsk/Moscow, who went on a wild car trip.
By the way, Altai is also a land of Buddhism and shamans, and while visiting, you can see nomads in yurts, listen to the kaichi, local musical storytellers. 2 million Russians had the chance to do this in 2019.
8. Golden Ring
This is a touristic route and a group of ancient cities about 200-300 km outside of Moscow. About 300-500 thousand Russians visit each of the nine cities annually. When a big city inhabitant wants to escape and feel the atmospheric and authentic Russia, they come here. Forts and monasteries built in the 11-12th centuries, golden dome churches, the Volga River or huge lakes, endless fields or dense wood can all be found along the Golden Ring. There is an experience for all tastes there. Read more in our short guide to the Golden Ring cities.
Prices there are rather cheap and getting there is rather easy. To attract even more tourists, the local tourist boards recently set up a number of glamping hotels, which will make you feel closer to nature, while not foregoing any luxury!
“The first place that I took my Italian husband to in Russia after Moscow was Suzdal, I wanted to surprise him with the real Russia, to show him the wooden houses with carved window surrounds and he was absolutely amazed,” says Alina from Moscow, now living in Munich. Unfortunately, booking a hotel in Suzdal can sometimes be problematic, especially during official holidays in Russia — there are too many tourists who want to stay in this gingerbread fairy tale paradise!
These two destinations are not represented among the most popular ones, because they are considered expensive, sometimes not comfortable and hard to get to. However, these places deserve a special mention, because secretly, all Russians dream of going there.
Baikal in winter
This place never gets onto any top tourist destination lists. But when you ask a Russian where they would like to go before they die, it’s very likely that they will say: “Baikal”. The unique lake and a holder of numerous records regarding water amount, deepness and amount of animals and fish that one can encounter there… is a land of shamans and enormously beautiful nature.
In summer, tickets there are rather expensive, but in winter, they are much more affordable. That’s what Vsevolod Pulya, our editor-in-chief did this year, and according to him, he left a part of his soul in the ice of Lake Baikal, which freezes in unusual and many kinds of shapes.
Don’t forget to watch our travel documentary about Lake Baikal.
A bear at the Kuril Lake in Kamchatka
The remote peninsula in Russia’s Far East is a dream of all the extreme seekers and nature lovers. It’s a land of Geysers, volcanoes and a wide range of activities. In summer, one can kayak, hike, fish, surf, see bears and whales. In winter, it’s mountain skiing and snowboarding. Despite a lack of proper infrastructure and having to rent an expensive helicopter ride to reach the top, nothing can express the emotions that one can experience sliding down right to the ocean.
Vladimir and his friends used to travel a lot around the world, but several years in a row now, he visits Kamchatka one to two times a year. “Snowboarding in Kamchatka was so exciting and so different from what I’ve experienced before, that I just don’t want to go to the Alps or anywhere else and I save money the whole year to make another trip to this edge of the world,” says Vladimir.
However, visiting Kamchatka is very expensive! Plane tickets to get there and then renting helicopters, off-road vehicles, boats, as well as all the equipment will cost a small fortune, and moreover, prices for ordinary foods are, naturally, much higher there. Time to start saving!
READ MORE: How to get an e-visa to Russia and which cities you can visit with it
If using any of Russia Beyond’s content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.
Get the week’s best stories straight to your inbox
►Russia in Lists ►Top Destination in Russia
Look at Russia on any map or globe and you will immediately appreciate why it is virtually impossible to see all the sights the world’s biggest country has to offer. The country is so massive that even a lifetime is not enough to explore it all. It is not helped by the fact that many of the country’s most beautiful natural areas are extremely remote with poor transport links.
To help you plan your trip to Russia, below is a list of 10 of the most popular and established tourist cities or routes in Russia. However even some of these are far from easy to get to or involve a long time travelling, in Russia this very often cannot be helped. The distances between the cities and routes also mean that it is impossible to visit them all on one trip!
The capital of the Russian Federation naturally attracts many tourists who come to see its famous Red Square and Kremlin. Other destinations on the main Moscow tourist route include the Novodevichy Convent, Christ the Saviour Cathedral, the VDNKh exhibition centre, Kolomenskoe Estate, Arbat street and Victory Park. The capital can also tempt tourists with its nightlife and Moscow is famed as being the city which never sleeps. The city is also home to the world-famous Bolshoi Theatre, for those who prefer more classical entertainment. The Moscow Metro, as well as being extremely efficient, is also a sight in itself and often described as underground palaces. Being the capital, Moscow is a transport hub and has excellent links with most Russian cities; St Petersburg, Kazan and many other cities in central European Russia are just a night on a train away. From Moscow it is also possible to go on a day trip to some of the cities on the Golden Ring. Find here more detailed information about main sights of Moscow.
The ring of cities to the north-east of Moscow known as the Golden Ring is probably Russia’s most popular tourist route. There are eight official principal cities of the Golden Ring (Ivanovo, Kostroma, Moscow, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Sergiev Posad, Suzdal, Vladimir and Yaroslavl) and a dozen or so other non-official secondary cities located in five subjects of the Russian Federation: the Ivanovo, Kostroma, Moscow, Vladimir and Yaroslavl Regions. The main attractions the Golden Ring cities have to offer tourists are their provincial tranquillity and the many examples of ancient church architecture. They are also rich in history having once been important cities in the Vladimir Grand Principality – the central mediaeval Russian state. It is easy to visit the cities from Moscow: the closest being just over an hour away while the furthest is just a night train away. Transport routes between the cities are also good meaning that instead of just a day trip from Moscow to a single city you can visit several over several days.
ST PETERBURG AND ITS SUBURBS
The most popular tourist destination in Russia is the city of St Petersburg which is often referred to as Russia’s Northern Capital and the Venice of the North due to its canals. The city was founded by Peter the Great in 1703 to serve as the official capital of the Russian Empire and today tourists are mostly drawn to the city because of its imperial past. During the Soviet era the city was known as Leningrad after Vladimir Lenin. The city’s most famous sight is the Winter Palace with is situated in the historic centre of St Petersburg and now used to house the Hermitage Gallery. There are also several more palaces located in St Petersburg’s suburbs of Peterhof, Pushkin and Pavlovsk. Getting to St Petersburg is easy with many flights and trains to the city. In addition many cruises also stop in St Petersburg for which a special visa-free regime may even apply. The city is also the most tourist-friendly city in Russia, with lots of English signage and various hotels, restaurants and cafes for all budgets.
The Republic of Karelia is located in Russia’s north-west and shares a border with Finland. The republic has a unique culture developed by the native Finno-Ugric people of Karelians, Finns and Vepsians who have all been living here alongside Russians for centuries. It is a popular tourist destination all year round for foreigners and Russians alike who are mainly drawn by its traditional wooden architecture and its nature. In summer it attracts tourists who come for camping, hiking, whitewater rafting, hunting and fishing; whereas in winter people come for dog-sledding and snowmobile trips. Over 80% of the territory is covered with forests and there are over 60,000 lakes here taking up around a quarter of the republic’s territory. Just outside the capital of Petrozavodsk – named after its founder Peter the Great — is the island of Kizhi where the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Kizhi Pogost is located which includes the spectacular wooden Transfiguration of the Lord Church. Petrozavodsk is reachable from Moscow by an overnight train.
Although they are not particularly easy to get to, the Solovetsky Islands are definitely worth a visit. The islands which are commonly just called Solovki in Russian are located in the White Sea and form part of Russia’s Arkhangelsk Region. The main island in the group is the Bolshoy Solobvetsky Island. Despite their remote location the islands have played a significant role in Russian history. The main sight here is the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Solovetsky Monastery, which was founded in the first half of the 15th century. Since that period the monastery grew into a great citadel of Christianity. The monastery thick walls made out of boulders were able to hold back the Livonian Order and the Swedes in the 16th and 17th centuries and even the British who bombarded the monastery in 1854 during the Crimean War. A darker period in its history came in the Soviet period when the monastery and the islands were used as one of the first Gulag camps. Today the monastery is protected by UNESCO and restoration work is still continuing. In addition to the monastery the nature of the island is truly stunning and the whole sensation of being on the islands is something special and magical. There are two options to get to the islands, the easiest is to get a short flight from Arkhangelsk or to get a ferry from the city of Kem which can be reached by train from Petrozavodsk. However the White Sea is notorious for its bad weather and occasional rough crossings.
The city of Volgograd is located on the Volga in the south of European Russia. Previously the city was known as Stalingrad and during the Second World War it saw one of the bloodiest battles of all human history. For its heroism the city was awarded the title of Hero City. It is due to this connection that most tourists are drawn to the city, including many tourists from Germany whose fathers or grandfathers fought in the battle. Many sights in the city are connected with the battle including the Ruined Mill which was never restored so as to serve as an example of the destruction the city suffered. However the main sight is the Mumaev Kurgan Memorial Complex with is dominated by the gigantic Mother Russia Calls Monument — a breathtakingly striking statue of a furious Mother Russia wielding a sword. It is just slightly shorter than the Statue of Liberty, although that is when including the Statue of Liberty’s pedestal. The fact that the city was practically destroyed in the Second World War means that most of the city’s main buildings were rebuilt in the grand Stalinist architectural style. The start of the Volga-Don Canal in the south of the city features the world’s largest statue of Vladimir Lenin. It is possible to get to Volgograd by plane or train from several Russian cities, however a train from Moscow takes around a day to get there.
Sochi is unique among Russian cities as it enjoys a sub-tropical climate and has palm tree lined embankments and beaches on the Black Sea — rather far from the traditional stereotype of snowy Russia. Although it has been a popular destination for decades among Russians, including the political elite (Stalin even had a dacha here), the city has only really become known on the international stage upon holding the XXII Winter Olympics in 2014. The games were split between two venues: in specially-built stadiums on the Black Sea coast and up in the mountains of nearby Krasnaya Polyana. This demonstrated the uniqueness of the place in being able to enjoy the snow of the mountains and then the sunshine of the coast in a single day. Even before the Winter Olympics there were good transport links with Sochi with many Russian cities as it was a popular destination for sending workers of various state-run companies during the Soviet years. There are many flights to the city’s brand new international airports as well as train links. A flight to Sochi from Moscow will take just over two hours whereas a train will take over a day.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is perhaps the most famous railway journey in the world and is certainly the longest. The main route of the railway stretches 9,289 kilometres from Moscow’s Yaroslavsky Railway Station to Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. There are several options available for tourists: from a practically luxurious compartment for tourists to a standard compartment used by ordinary Russians travelling across the country. If you plan to go on this journey it is worth getting off at certain stops instead of travelling non-stop for around a week. Interesting cities on the way include Perm, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Ulan Ude, Birobidzhan and Khabarovsk. It also passes by Lake Baikal and it is also possible to take a small detour to the city of Tomsk, famed for its traditional wooden buildings. As an alternative to travelling to Vladivostok, you can instead go on one of the branches off the railway to Ulaanbaator in Mongolia or Beijing in China.
Kazan is the capital of Russia’s Republic of Tatarstan, but is also known as Russia’s Third Capital after Moscow and St Petersburg. The city has been influenced by a blend of European and Asian cultures. Its main sight is its white-stone Kremlin which stands on a hill and is dominated by the impressive Qol-Şärif Mosque. Older mosques can also be found in the city’s Staraya Tatarskaya Sloboda (Old Tatar Quarter). The government of Tatarstan has invested a great deal in promoting tourism in the region, especially the cities of Bulgar, Chistopol, Sviyazhsk and Yelabuga, which can all be easily visited from Kazan.
Located on the border of the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia is the real gem of Siberia — the majestically beautiful Lake Baikal which is the world’s deepest lake, believed to contain one-fifth of the world’s surface fresh water. It is also the clearest lake in the world, so much so that if swimming in it in summer you can experience vertigo and in winter when it is frozen you can see many metres down through the ice. The lake and the surrounding area are home to hundreds of unique species of plants and animals, the most famous of which is the wide-eyed Baikal seal known as a nerpa. If you are travelling on the Trans-Siberia you will pass by Baikal but it is definitely recommended to make a stop in Irkutsk to get a closer look. The easiest place to do this is at Listvyanka which is just about an hour from Irkutsk, however an even better option is to travel to the island of Olkhon in the centre of the lake, but this takes around six hours from Irkutsk. From Moscow, it takes almost six hours to get to Irkutsk by plane and over three and a half days by train.
Сообщение от 28 ноября 2022 года:
Клише для 1 го абзаца сочинения — описание таблицы, диаграммы.
Nowadays more and more
people in the world tend to stay healthy at any age. I am currently working on a project, which is
aimed at finding out how people stay healthy in Zetland. I have found some data on the subject –
the results of an opinion poll. As part of my project, I am going to analyze the statistics and
present my findings.
Пока что (и в ЕГЭ 2023 г.) экзаменуемые вправе писать
о любой реальной проблеме, логично вписывающейся в указанную сферу. В дальнейшем
мы, видимо, подойдем к тому, чтобы экзаменуемые выявляли проблему, вытекающую
из статистических данных. Хорошо, если они могут делать это уже сейчас, но такого
требования пока нет.
Сообщение от 22 октября 2022 года:
Тем, кто сдает ЕГЭ, написать письмо и описать данные таблицы по следующим заданиям:
37 You have received an email message from your English-speaking pen-friend Kevin:
From: Kevin@mail.uk _______________________________________________________
Subject: Ways of travelling
… Last week we flew to Florida for my aunt’s birthday. It was awful! We were three hours late boarding the plane and then spent another hour waiting for the take-off. If we had gone by car, we would have got there more quickly. Do you prefer to travel by car, train or airplane and why? Do you agree that air travel is not always the quickest? Which is the most dangerous in your opinion?
I am planning to take driving lessons soon…
Write an email to Kevin.
In your message:
— answer his questions:
— ask 3 questions about his future driving lessons.
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of email writing.
38.1 Imagine that you are doing a project on the most popular holiday
destinations in Russia. You have found some data on the subject — the results of
the opinion polls (see the table below).
Comment on the data in the table and give your opinion on the subject of the project.
Holiday destinations Number of travellers (%)
St. Petersburg 11
Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an opening statement on the subject of the project;
— select and report 2-3 facts;
— make 1-2 comparisons where relevant;
— outline a problem that can arise with travelling around Russia and suggest a way of solving it;
— conclude by giving your opinion on the most popular holiday destination in Russia.
38. 2 Imagine that you are doing a project on how frequently teenagers in Russia use social media. You have found some data on the subject — the results of the opinion polls (see the diagram below).
Comment on the data in the diagram and give your opinion on the subject of the project.
How frequently teenagers in Russia use social media
More than once a day 70%
Do not use social media 19%
Once a week 5%
Less than weekly 3%
Once a day 3%
Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an opening statement on the subject of the project;
— select and report 2-3 facts;
— make 1-2 comparisons where relevant;
— outline a problem that can arise with using social media in Russia and suggest a way of solving it;
— conclude by giving your opinion on the reasons why teens use social media.
Сообщение от 18 октября 2022 года:
Алгоритм выполнения задания 38.1 и 38.2
письменной части ЕГЭ (максимум — 14 баллов)
Задание из демоверсии ЕГЭ 2023 года:
Выберите только одно из двух предложенных заданий (38.1 или 38.2), укажите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2 и выполните согласно данному плану.
В ответе на задание 38 числительные пишите цифрами.
38.1 Imagine that you are doing a project on how teenagers relax after a busy day in Zetland. You have found some data on the subject — the results of the opinion polls (see the table below).
Comment on the data in the table and give your opinion on the subject of the project.
Ways Number of respondents (%)
Having a hobby 38
Spending time with friends 31
Walking in the open air 10
Eating tasty food 6
Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an opening statement on the subject of the project;
— select and report 2-3 facts;
— make 1-2 comparisons where relevant and give your comments;
— outline a problem that can arise with having a rest and suggest a way of solving it;
— conclude by giving and explaining your opinion on the importance of relaxing well in our lives.
Примерный образец выполнения данного задания.
Клише для каждого из пяти абзацев (параграфов):
ВСТУПЛЕНИЕ (параграф № 1)
«Правильное» вступление состоит из 2-3 предложений и знакомит нас с проблемой, указанной в самом задании.
Например, в задании написано: «how teenagers relax after a busy day in Zetland».
Нам нужно вставить эту фразу в наш проект, или заменить в ней что-то на синонимы. Нужно упомянуть, что вы делаете проект, нашли материалы к нему и сейчас будете об этом рассказывать.
🏃 It is hard to deny the importance of having a good rest. I have decided to do a project on how teenagers in Zetland relax after a busy day and found the results of the opinion polls to illustrate some of my ideas.
Ещё: It’s well known that (topic) …
Nowadays more and more people (action connected with the topic)
Over the last few decades there has been a significant increase in the number of people who (do sth connected with the topic)
(Topic) plays an important role in our life
Undoubtedly, all people (action connected with the topic)
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine … without …
Основные фичи графика (параграф №2)
В плане сочинения во втором абзаце ученику предлагается указать 2-3 главных факта из таблицы/ графика/диаграммы. Лучше выбрать 2 факта. Здесь ничего сравнивать не надо.
As we can see from the table, 38% of respondents prefer doing a hobby after a busy day, while eating tasty food is the least popular way of spending teenagers’ free time with only 6% of teenagers doing it. Also, adolescents can spend time with their friends, sleep and walk in the open air to have a rest after a tiring day.
Клише: — the main features of this table/graph/pie chart ….
— one can see from the poll that…
— the most popular …. the least popular …
— if we look at the graph/table/pie chart, we can see …
— looking at the main features …
— what stands out from the table/ graph/ pie chart …
— another striking feature is …
Сравнения (параграф № 3)
В 3 абзаце нужно проанализировать данные из графика и представить 1-2 сравнения и свои комментарии к ним. Нет связи между тем, сколько вы фактов выделяли во 2-м абзаце и количеством сравнений в 3-м. Сравниваем любые черты, которые вам понравились в графике.
Looking at the figures in the table, we can see that spending time with their friends (noted by 31% of the respondents) is almost twice as popular as sleeping, which stands at 15%. Another interesting feature of the poll is is that walking in the open air (noted by 10% of the respondents) is only 4% higher than eating tasty food, which is the least favoured by teenagers in Zetland.
— in comparison / in contrast, …
— on the other hand, …
— However, …/ Likewise, …
— not as … as
— more popular … than
— while / whereas/ although/but
Проблема + решение (параграф №4):
Эта часть письменного задания будет самой объемной, потому что нужно указать проблему, связанную с темой проекта, и предложить её решение. Это может быть ЛЮБАЯ проблема по теме задания.
Although we see that there are several ways to relax for teenagers in Zetland, there is a problem connected with having a rest. Sometimes it is difficult to switch off from your studies and work, and instead of relaxing you spend time thinking about what else you have to do later. I believe that the best solution to this problem would be going out as fresh air and change of scenery can help to forget about things that keep bothering you at home.
— the main problem with … is …
— the main problem faced by…is …
— general solutions centre around
— one effective solution to deal with … is …
— a solution that can prove successful is …
Заключение + мнение (параграф/абзац № 5):
I would like to conclude by saying that relaxing is of primary importance for every person as it helps one to have a calmer and clearer mind which aids memory, positive thinking and concentration.
Выражения для подведения итогов:
To conclude, …/ To sum up, / Summarising , …
In conclusion, …
Клише для выражения своего мнения:
I believe that …. because …
I am convinced that …
I strongly believe that …
Personally, I think that …
In my opinion, … In my view, …
Сообщение от 22 февраля 2022 года:
Критерии оценивания задания 40 письменной части ЕГЭ:
Сообщение от 14 февраля 2022 года:
Пунктуация: где ставить запятые?
Остановимся только на употреблении запятой, потому что различие между русским и английском языком в отношении знаков препинания проявляется главным образом в этом. Правил довольно много, вот лишь некоторые из них.
1) однородные члены предложения, при этом в отличие от русского языка, запятая ставится часто и перед последним членом перечисления, введенным союзом and или or: I have a living-room, a bedroom, a kitchen, and a bathroom.
2) обстоятельственные придаточные предложения, если они стоят в начале предложения перед главным.
Если придаточное следует за главным, то оно запятой не отделяется:
When I finish my work, we’ll go for a walk.
We’ll go for a walk when I I finish my work.
3) причастные и абсолютные обороты, стоящие в начале предложения:
The rain having stopped, we went for a walk.
вводные слова или выражения для отделения их от остальной части предложения:
Well, I like this.
By the way, I also need money.
However, nobody drank much.
части сложносочиненных предложений, соединенных одним из сочинительных союзов and, but, for, or, nor, while (в значении but):
I dictated the letter, but she didn’t put it down correctly. 6) для отделения вопросительной части в разделительных вопросах:
You saw this film, didn’t you?
They haven’t come today, have they?
7) пояснительные слова от прямой речи, если нет других знаков препинания:
He asked, «How long will it take you?»
Сообщение от 13 февраля 2022 года:
Алгоритм работы по успешному выполнению задания 40— развернутое письменное высказывание — описание диаграмм/таблиц:
С 2022 года в письменной части ЕГЭ по английскому введено задание на анализ диаграммы. Здесь представляем образец выполнения задания с рядом тренировочных упражнений.
Imagine that you are doing a project on what people use their smartphones for. You have collected some data on the subject (see the diagram below). Comment on the data in the diagram and give your personal opinion on the subject of the project.
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
– make an opening statement on the subject of the project work;
– select and report 2–3 main features;
– make 1–2 comparisons where relevant;
– outline a problem that can arise with using smartphones and suggest the way of solving it;
– draw a conclusion giving your personal opinion on the role of smartphones in our life.
Smartphones have become an integral part of the modern life. People use them for different purposes: sending and receiving email, making phone calls, surfing the Internet, etc. I have done a project on the use of smartphones and now I am going to comment on the data and give my personal opinion on the subject.
According to the research, sending and receiving electronic letters has a strong lead in using smartphones. Seventy-nine per cent of people consider these devices the best means to be in correspondence with their friends and family. At the same time, making phone calls is ranked number two in the purposes smartphones are used for. Specifically, people speak on the phone in seventy-eight per cent of the cases.
The next top positions are held by surfing the Internet and playing games while differing from each other by ten per cent sharp. In fifty-eight cases people connect to the World Wide Web with their smartphones, and in forty-eight cases they take their above-mentioned devices to start a game.
Considering the frequency of using smartphones, sense of sight may take a turn for the worse. To reduce the damage it is highly recommended to buy models with high resolution screen and to make special exercises for the eyes.
In conclusion, I would like to stress the fact that a smartphone is indispensable for everyone because of its functional variety.
Обратите внимание на последние требования к написанию электронного письма на ЕГЭ по английскому языку!
Изучите критерии оценивания!
Новое в ЕГЭ 2022. Задание 39 в ЕГЭ по английскому языку
Написание электронного письма личного характера
(базовый уровень сложности)
В 2021 году в ЕГЭ по английскому языку были внесены изменения в оба задания раздела «Письменная речь».
В задании 39 ученику предлагают написать электронное письмо в ответ на письмо-стимул его зарубежного друга, с которым они переписываются. То есть по факту это написание несложного связанного текста в рамках определенной тематики.
Новое, что необходимо помнить при написании письма:
1. В бланке ответов № 2 мы не переписываем рамку (from … to…). Даже если учащийся перепишет ее из КИМа, баллы за это не снижаются, но при подсчёте общего количества слов эта часть учитываться не будет.
2. Не записываем дату и адрес как раньше (иначе это будет засчитано как нарушение по критерию «организация текста», так как формат другой и в электронном письме дата и адрес никогда не указываются).
3. Ссылка на предыдущие контакты теперь не нужна.
4. С 2022 года больше не считается за ошибку использование разговорных неформальных сокращений таких, как wanna, gonna, gotta… Помимо этого, допустимы общепринятые сокращения, принятые в интернет-чатах и форумах, например, ASAP, BTW, 4ever, и некоторые другие.
Максимальное количество баллов за задание 39 составляет 6 баллов.
Критерии оценивания. Знать критерии оценивания на самом деле важно, так как получение максимального балла за это задание возможно лишь при четком понимании того, за что конкретно ставятся баллы.
Критерий первый — решение коммуникативной задачи (2 балла)
Нужно укладываться в заданные рамки 90-154 слова. Первым делом эксперты всегда подсчитывают количество слов в письме. Минимальный объем, подлежащий проверке, 90 слов. Если даже в письме 89 слов, ученик получает за первый критерий 0 баллов и, соответственно, все задание оценивается в 0 баллов. Максимальный объём, который будет проверяться экспертом, 154 слова. Если у ученика больше 154 слов, то эксперт отсчитает первые 140, а все остальное проверке не подлежит (в итоге ученик получает меньше баллов из-за того, что не войдут в подсчет надежда на будущие контакты, заключительная фраза, подпись и пр.).
Ученик должен полно и точно ответить на три заданных вопроса полностью, а если есть вопрос «почему?», то необходимо ответить и на него. Ответ из разряда «I don’t know which sports are popular among Russian teenagers» не будет зачтён.
Помимо этого, ученик задаёт три вопроса другу на конкретную тему, указанную в письме-стимуле.
В данном критерии также учитывается наличие норм вежливости, надежда на будущие контакты и стилевое оформление письма. В последнее входит употребление формул речевого этикета, принятых в стране изучаемого языка. Учащиеся должны знать, что неофициальный стиль включает краткие формы глаголов (doesn’t, aren’t, won’t, can’t) и разговорную лексику.
Критерий второй — организация текста (2 балла)
Здесь оценивается логичность, деление на абзацы, использование средств логической связи и структура письма.
Для ввода основной части письма, где ученик отвечает на заданные ему другом вопросы, уместно использовать такие фразы, как «In your message you asked me about…», «Well, as for my …», или «I’d like to say that…».
Что касается логики изложения, довольно часто в письме встречаются ошибки в согласовании местоимений с предшествующим предложением.
Например: I am studying to get ready for final tests. I’m taking it in June.
Возможны три варианта деления текста на абзацы: 1) с помощью красной строки, 2) пропуская строку между абзацами, 3) используя первый и второй вариант вместе, т.е. можно и красную строку оставлять, и промежуток между абзацами. В принципе, допускается деление абзаца, где содержатся ответы на вопросы, на два или три абзаца. Однако в данном случае абзац не должен состоять из одного простого короткого предложения.
Языковое оформление текста (2 балла)
Важно понимать, что здесь оценивается не только наличие лексико-грамматических, орфографических и пунктуационных ошибок, но и соответствие лексических и грамматических структур уровню сложности задания.
У учащихся возникает вопрос, допустимо ли использовать американский вариант написания слова. Допустимо, но, если выбран американский вариант, он не должен меняться в письме. Если где-то далее будет использован британский вариант написания того же слова, это будет засчитано за ошибку.
Важно помнить про отсутствие восклицательного знака в обращении, наличие запятой после завершающей фразы, отсутствие точки после подписи.
Предлагаю рассмотреть образец-шаблон написания данного задания. В демонстрационном варианте ФИПИ на 2022 год предлагается такое письмо-стимул:
Ответ на данное письмо, за который на экзамене можно получить 6 баллов, может выглядеть так:
Thank you for your email. I was glad to get it. I hope you’re doing well.
In your message, you asked me some questions and I’m going to answer them right away! Well, in summer the weather here can be warm or hot. Actually, it’s almost always sunny and dry. My favourite season is summer because I have very long holidays and I can do what I want. It’s so much fun! As for my plans for the summer, I’m going to make a film about my family. You know, recording family history seems a great idea.
By the way, I’d like to ask you some questions about your uncle. How old is he? Where does he live? How long is he going to stay at your place?
Take care and keep in touch!
All the best,
В данном письме 140 слов, в необходимый объем мы уложились.
Для осуществления логической связи необходимо использовать в тексте письма вводные слова и специальные слова-связки.
В данном примере были использованы:
You know, – знаешь ли
Actually, – на самом деле, вообще-то
By the way, – кстати, между прочим
Достаточно 3-4 таких выражений, не стоит перегружать ими ваше письмо.
Ниже приведу дополнительную схему оценивания задания 39, которая может использоваться как учителем для оценивания работ учащихся, так и самими учениками в качестве инструмента для самооценки и для тренировки выполнения и самопроверки данного задания.
Дополнительная схема оценивания задания 39
«ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ ПИСЬМО ЛИЧНОГО ХАРАКТЕРА»
Объём высказывания соответствует поставленной задаче: 90–154 слова
1. Решение коммуникативной задачи (Содержание)
Аспект 1. Ответ на вопрос о погоде летом в России дан
Аспект 2. Ответ на вопрос о любимом времени года автора и о причине этого дан
Аспект 3. Ответ на вопрос о планах автора письма на лето дан
Аспект 4. Три вопроса о дяде друга по переписке заданы
Аспект 5. Нормы вежливости соблюдены: благодарность за полученное письмо; надежда на последующие контакты
Аспект 6. Стилевое оформление выбрано правильно: обращение, завершающая фраза, подпись автора в соответствии с неофициальным стилем
ИТОГОВЫЙ БАЛЛ (максимальный балл – 2)
2. Организация текста
Деление на абзацы
Средства логической связи
Обращение на отдельной строке
Завершающая фраза на отдельной строке
Подпись на отдельной строке
ИТОГОВЫЙ БАЛЛ (максимальный балл – 2)
3. Языковое оформление текста. ИТОГОВЫЙ БАЛЛ (максимальный балл – 2)
Tourism is very popular among the people of our country. We can’t imagine our holidays without any travelling. During the last ten years Russian people got used to having rest travelling at least once a year (usually in summer) though some of them used to take trips more often (in winter holidays or May Day holidays).
The most popular directions were Turkey, Egypt, Greece and Italy as their climate allows having beach rest from April till October. Nevertheless they were popular in winter as well.
In cold seasons winter resorts in the mountains of the Alps were very popular.
The political situation in the world has seriously affected Russian tourism.
A sharp drop of the ruble in the world market also affects the high prices of tours. It repels Russian tourists from visiting foreign resorts.
That is why the most popular directions of travelling of the Russians gradually recede into the background. It is discovered that visiting foreign countries by the Russian tourists has decreased significantly for the last two years. For example Russians visiting Europe for the period 2014-2015 fell by 20 percent due to the large number of immigrants and insecurity. Egypt and Turkey are closed for Russian tourists. Visiting Egypt resorts has declined by 40 percent because of the threat of terrorist attacks and high prices. In Turkey, the drop in attendance resorts by Russian tourists amounted to almost 50 percent only in 2015 year.
Political conflicts, military actions and problems of migration has become the reasons why Russian people refuse to travel abroad.
The aim of this project is
-to explore travelling opportunities in our country,
— to compare the prices of tours and service,
-to find out possible ways of travelling about Russia for various kinds of rest.
Surely there are more people who believe that Russia is the best place to relax and not ready to replace Russian resorts for anything else. Experts say that domestic tourism in 2016 will continue to increase, the demand for which has jumped for 30%.
Russians have a great variety of native resorts. They are Sochi, Crimea, The Lake Baikal, Kamchatka and the most popular directions of Russian pupils: St. Petersburg, Moscow and Gold ring of Russia.
Crimea is washed by the Black and Azov Seas. The nature of Crimea is unique. Here, in Crimea, one can enjoy various landscapes changing in front of your eyes. The endless steppes turn into the hills of Koktebel, and exotic relic plants of the South Coast on a background of delicious main ridge of the Crimean Mountains and the wild beauty of the volcanic rocks of Karadag, and the underground world of caves. The territory of Crimea includes many inns, hotels, villas, guest houses, cottages, which are masterpieces of architecture of the19-21 centuries.
Sochi is one of the most popular resorts of Russian Black Sea coast. Sochi resort consists of four districts. They are Central, Adler, Hosta and Lazarev areas. The population is more than four hundred thousand people. Having rest in Sochi one enjoys beautiful nature, warm sea and plenty of opportunities to have fun and interesting way to spend your leisure time and improve your health. According to its length, this subtropical resort is one of the longest in the world. It stretches for hundred forty-five kilometers along the sea. The Greater Caucasus Range reliably protects it from the cold winds.
Lake Baikal is one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world, located on the border between the Republic of Buryatia and Irkutsk region. Lake Baikal is one of the main natural attractions of Russia. It is over twenty-five million years. The lake water is extraordinary pure. Its transparency reaches forty meters. It is often called the Baikal Sea. Its length is six hundred thirty-six kilometers and width of eighty kilometers. The Baikal is also the deepest lake in the world. Its average depth is seven hundred forty-four meters, and maximum depth is one thousand six hundred forty-two meters. The total area of the lake is about thirty thousand square kilometers. The lake Baikal was formed as a result of crustal faults. Hundreds of water streams filled with water. The Angara river rises the Lake.
St. Petersburg is the northern capital of Russia. The city is located at the mouth of the Neva River in the north-west Russia coast of the Gulf of Finland. St. Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in the world, the largest cultural and scientific center of Russia. The city was founded by Peter the Great in 1703. St. Petersburg is a city in which it is impossible not to fall in love. Having been here once you will want to come back here again. It is also a city known as «Venice of the North». By the number of water that flows here. Among the hundreds of rivers, canals, streams, channels the largest river is the Neva. Small rivers such as the Sink, the Fontanka, the Nevka divide the city on the islands and the small islands, which are connected by bridges.
Gold ring is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Russia. The Golden Ring of Russia consists of eight ancient Russian cities. There are Sergiev Posad, Pereslavl, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Ivanovo, Suzdal, Vladimir. Sergiev Posad is located at a distance from Moscow, seventy-five kilometers. There is a famous Trinity-Sergius Lavra is one of the largest active Orthodox Monastery in Russia. In these sacred places a lot of attractions. Among them are the Church of the Dormition, Vvedensky and Pyatnitskaya church, monastery hotel Chernigov temple built underneath eighteen hundred and fiftieth year of the cave church.
Millions of people all over the world are fond of travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, to discover different ways of life, to meet different people and to practise foreign languages. It goes without saying that travelling broadens the mind. While travelling we can see and learn a lot of things that we can never learn staying at home and watching TV or reading books. That’s why a lot of foreign people come to Russia to get acquainted with Russian culture, with Russian customs and traditions.
Russia has always been a country of mystery attractive for foreigners. There are lots of villages and towns in Russia famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in Dymkovo. Thousands of foreigners visit Russia to enjoy the typical Russian log houses, decorated with wood carvings.
Tourists like to visit old Russian towns and cities famous for their ancient architecture. They are especially attracted by Russian orthodox cathedrals, churches and monasteries. One of the most interesting old cities in Russia is Novgorod, or Novgorod the Great, as it was called in the old times. It is a treasury of architecture, painting and applied art created over the 11th to 17th centuries. The first records of the city on the Volkhov River date back to the year of 859. Now Novgorod has expanded far beyond its former limits. It is an important industrial and cultural centre, located on the busy highway linking Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The focal point of the city is the Detinets, or the Kremlin. The present-day Kremlin stems largely from the 15th century. Several alterations made in the 16th and 17th centuries were minor and did not affect its appearance. Novgorod’s contribution to the development of Russian culture is outstanding. No other city excels Novgorod in the number of ancient monuments of architecture. The Novgorod Museum of History, Architecture and Art shows visitors the history of the medieval Novgorod. Its artistic value lies primarily in its collection of medieval icon painting.
There is a lot to see in Russia, but first of all foreign tourists visit the capital of our country, Moscow, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. They dream of visiting Red Square, which is called the heart of Moscow. Perhaps, the most ancient monument of Red Square is St. Basil’s Cathedral. With its nine beautifully painted cupolas, it is a real masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture.
If you come to Moscow for the first time, you should by all means visit the Kremlin, which is very impressive. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the State Kremlin Palace, the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. The tallest Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country.
If you leave the Kremlin by the Trinity Gate you will come to the Alexandrovsky Gardens. The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, still and silent. Not far from the Alexandrovsky Gardens, behind the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, you will see Christ the Saviour Cathedral, with its huge beautiful gilded dome. Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals in and around the city. There are also a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions and monuments in Moscow.
There are more than 80 museums in our capital. The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art of the ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, and the State Tretyakov Gallery, which houses a rich collection of Russian painting and Russian icons. Other unique museums in Moscow are the State History Museum, the All-Russia Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, the Polytechnical Museum and many others. Moscow is famous for its theatres, too. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.
Another interesting place to visit in Moscow is the All-Russia Exhibition Centre which occupies an area of 530 acres. The Exhibition Centre is situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature of the Exhibition Centre is its fountains. The «Friendship of the Nations» and the «Stone Flower» fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition Centre is a large cultural and commercial complex where different international exhibitions and fairs are held.
One of the most famous sights of the city is the Moscow Metro and a journey by Metro will be unforgettable. In the Metro you do not feel as if you’re underground. This is due to the unique architecture and the artistic design of the stations, which are more like palaces. No two stations are alike; most of them have their own appearance.
Of course, every foreigner should visit St. Petersburg, the second largest city in Russia and one of the most splendid cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great at the mouth of the Neva River. Now it is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre.
St. Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there is something to catch your eye. The Winter Palace, St. Isaac’s Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, and the Admiralty Building attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. Petersburg’s many museums house some of the world’s most famous art collections. The Hermitage and the Russian Museum, for example, contain the richest collections of pictures in the world.
The city is called the Northern Venice, because there are 65 rivers, branches and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It’s also famous for its beautiful white nights.
There are a lot of Hero-cities in our country. And I would recommend that my foreign friends visit one of them. Volgograd is a legendary city, because here in 1943 the Soviet Army won the great and glorious victory over the fascists. The city was completely ruined during the war, but now it is a beautiful city again. It stands on the banks of the great Russian river Volga. The symbol of Volgograd is the Mamaev Hill. It was the centre of fighting during the heroic defence of Stalingrad. Now there is a great memorial there. Besides, you can visit the Stalingrad Battle Panorama Museum, which is situated on the bank of the Volga River. The centre of Volgograd is the Square of the Fallen Heroes. In the middle of it there is a granite obelisk and the common graves of the heroes of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. At the foot of the memorial you can see the Eternal Flame. Now Volgograd is a big industrial and cultural centre.
There are a lot of other interesting towns and cities in Russia, which are all worth visiting.